Skip to main content

Full text of "A set of anatomical tables, with explanations, and an abridgment of the practice of midwifery, with a view to illustrate a treatise on that subject, and collection of cases"

See other formats

-••Q.J^t- ] 



I M v/ — ^ Ki 






Mr/r. I. 



, WITH ^^Al 







l'^-€4^ <a o il 


Adapted to the prefent Improved Method of Practice, 

BY A. HAMILTON, m.d. f.r.s. Edinburgh, 
and Profeflbr of Midwifery in the Univerfity of Edinburgh. 



With an entire New Set of Plates, carefully Corrected and Revised. 

PRINTED at WORCESTER, Massachusetts, 

Sold at his Bookllore in Worcester ; by faid Thomas, and Andrews, 
Fauft's Statue, Newbury Street, Boston; and by laid Tkomas, and 
Carlisle, in Walpole, Newhampfhire, 




y^S, in a long courfe of teaching and 
pradiice in Midwifery^ I hope I may without van- 
ity fay, that I have done fomething towards re- 
ducing that Art into a morejimpie and mechan- 
ical method than has hitherto been done ; I have 
attempted to explain the fame in my Treat ife on 
the Theory and PraBice of Midwifery and Col- 
leBion of Cafes ; and finding that mofl of the 
reprefentations hitherto given of the parts fub^ 
fervient to Uterine Geflation and Parturition 
were in many ref peels deficient^ I have been in- 
duced to undertake the following Tables, with a. 
view to fupply in fome meafure the defedis of 
others, and at the fame time to illujlrate what I 
have taught and written on the fubjeB, How 
far I have obtained thofe e?ids, it belongs to oth- 
ers to judge, Ifhall only beg leave to obferve here 
by way of Preface, that the great eji part of the 
figures were taken from fubjeBs prepared on 
purpofe, tojhow every thing that might conduce 
to the improvement of the young Practitioner : 
Avoiding, however, the extreme Mi nut ice, and 
what elfe fcemed foreign to the prcfcnt defign ; 
thefituation of parts, and their refpeBive dimen- 
fions, being more particularly attended to, than a 
minute anatomical inveftigation of their fir uBure, 
As thefe Tables may pojfibly fill into the hands 
of fome who have not jccn my former work, I 


have added an abridgment of the Pra£lice ; which ^ 
though far from being complete, may ferve to il^ 
luflrate feveral things which otherwife by a bare 
reprefentation would he hardly intelligible. 

References are rnade to Vol, /, //, and III. By 
Vol. I, I mean that which I firfl publifhed in the 
year 1752, and contains a view of the Theory 
and PraBice of Midwifery ; Vol. 11, and III, 
contain the ColleBion of Cafes mentioned above. 
My firfi plan for thefe Tables confined them to 
the 7mmber of twenty two, which Mr. Rymf- 
dyke had fin{fhed above two years ago ; but I 
foonfaw that a farther illujlration, and confe^ 
quently an addition to that number, was necef 
fary. In eleven of thefe. Dr. Camper, yirw^r- 
ly ProfefTor of Medicine^/ Franequer in Frief- 
land, nozv Profeffor of Anatomy ^;2i Botany ^/ 
Amilerdam, greatly afjifiedme, viz. Table XII ^ 
The refwere drawn by Mr. Rymfdyke j except 
the thirty feventh and thirty ?ji?7th, which were 
done by another hand. The whole of the draw^ 
, ings are faithfully engraved: In which, hoW" 
ever, delicacy and elegance have not beenfo much 
co7\f lilted, as to have them done in a Jlrong and 
diflinB ma7iner ; with this view chiefly, that 
from the cheapnefs of the work it may be render^ 
ad of more general ufe. 


or A SET OF 


With an ABRIDGMENT of the 


Represents, in a front view, th^ 

bones of a well formed Pelvis, 

A. The five Yertehrce of the loins* 

B. The Os Sacrum* 

C. The Os Coccygis* 

D. D. The OJfa Ilium, 

E. E. The OJfa Ifchium. 

F. The OJfa Pubis. 

G. The Foramina Magnus^ 
H. H. The Ace tabula, 

1. 1. 1. 1. LI. The brim of the Pelvis, or that 
circumference of its cavity, which is defcribed at 
the fideS; by the inferior parts of the OJfa Iliim, 
A and 


and at the back and fore parts, by the fuperior 
parts of the OJfa Pubis and Sacrum, 

In this table, befides the general ftru6lure and 
figure of the feveral bones, the dimenlions of the 
brim of the Pelvis^ and the diftance between the 
under parts of the OJfa IJchiiim, are particularly 
to be attended to, from which it will appear that 
the cavity of the brim is commonly wider from 
fide to fide, than from the back to the fore part, 
but that the fides below are in the contrary pro- 
portion. The reader, however, ought not from 
this to conclude, that every Pelvis is fimilar in 
figure and dimenfions, lince even well formed 
ones differ in fome degree from each other. In 
general, the brim of the Pelvis meafures about five 
inches and a quarter from fide to fide, and four 
inches and a quarter from the back to the fore 
•part ; there being likewife the fame diftance be- 
tween the inferior parts of the OJfa Ifchium, All 
thefe meafures, however, muft be underftood as 
taken from the fkeleton, for in the fubjedl, the 
cavity of the Pelvis is confiderably diminiftied 
by its teguments and contents. Correfpondent 
alfo to this diminution, the ufual dimenfions of 
the head of the full grown Fcetus are but three 
inches and a half from ear to ear, and four 
inches and a quarter from the fore to the 
hind head. '■. 

Vide Tab. XVI, XVII, XVIII. Alfo, Vol. I. 
Chap. 1. Setl. i, 2, 3. Where the form and di- 
menfions of the Pelvis, as well as of the head of 
the Fxtus^ and the manner in which the fame is 


/i/r II . 


protruded in labour through the bafon, are fully 
treated of. Confult likewife Vol, II. Coll, i. No. 
1,2. where cafes are given of complaints of the 
Pelvis arifmg from difficult labours* 


Gives a lateral and internal view of the Ptlvis^ 
the fame being divided longitudinally, 

A. The three lower Vertebrce of the loins, 

B. The Osfacrum, 

C. The Os Coccygis, 

D. The left Os Ilium. 

E. The left Os Ifchiim, 

F. The Os Pubis of the fame fide. 

G. The acute procefs of the Os Ifchium, 
H. The Foramen Magnum, 

I.I.I. The brim of the Pelvis. 

This plate fhows the diftanee from the fuperi- 
our part of the Os Sacrum to the OJfa Pubis, di^ 
well as from the lad mentioned bones to the 
Coccyx, which in each amounts to about four 
inches and a quarter. The depth likewife is 
fliown of the poflerior, lateral, and anterior parts 
of the Pelvis, not in the line of the body, but in 
that of the Ptlvis from its brim downward, which 

A 2 is 


is generally three times deeper on the pofterior 
than anterior part, and twice the depth of theiafl 
at the fides. 

From this view appears alfo the angle which 
is formed by the la ft Vertebra of the loins and 
the fuperior part of the Os Sacrum, as likewife 
the concavity or hollow fpace in the pofterior in- 
ternal part of the Pelvis, arifing from the curva- 
ture of the laft mentioned bone and Coccyx ; fi- 
nally, the diftance from which to the pofterior 
parts of the OJfa Ijchium is here expreffed. 

Vide Tab. XVI, XVII, XVIIT, XIX, Alfo, VoL 
I, and II, as referred to in the former table. 


Exhibits a front view of a diftorted Pelvis, 

A. The five Vertebrce of the loins, 

B. The Os Sacrum, 

C. The Os Coccygis. 

. D. D. The OJfa iMin, 

E. £. The OJfa Ijchium, 

F. The Offa Pubis, 

G. G. The Foramina Magna, 
H. H. The Acetabxda, 

From this plate may appear the great danger 
incident to both mother and child when the Pel* 



, J /aie. m 


vis is diftorted in this manner ; it being only two 
inches and an half at the brim from the poflerior 
to the anterior part, and the fame diftance be- 
tween the inferior parts of each Os Ifchiilm* Vide 
Tab. XXVII, where the Pelvis is one quarter of 
an inch narrower at the brim than this, but fuffi- 
ciently wide below. Various are the forms of 
diflorted bafons, but the lafl mentioned is the 
moft common. It is a great happinefs, however, 
in pradice, that they are feldom fo narrow, 
though there are inftances where they have been 
much more fo. The danger in all fuch cafes 
muft increafe or diminifh, according to the de- 
gree of diftortion of the Pelvis ^ and iize of the 
child's head. 

Vide Vol. I. Book i. Chap. I. Se61;. 4, 5. And 
Vol. II. Coll. 1. No. 3, 4, 5. Alfo, Coll. 21, 
27, and 2^, 


Shows the external female parts of generation. 

A. The lower part of the Abdomen, 

B. B. The Labia Piidendi feparated. 
C The Clitoris and PrcepiUium* 

D. D. The Nymph(v. 

E. The Fojfa Magna, or Os Externum. 

A 3 F, The 


F. The Meatus Urinarius. 

G. The Frcenum Labiorum. 
H. The Perinceum, 

I. The Anus. 

K. The part that covers the extremity of the 

L. L. The parts that cover the tuberofities of 

the Ojfa Ijchuim. 

As it is of great confequence to every pra6li- 
tioner in midwifery, to know exaftly the fitua* 
tion of the parts concerned in parturition, and 
which have not been accurately defcribed by 
former Anatomifts, with a view to this particular 
branch, I have given this draught from one of 
the preferved fubjeQ;s which I keep by me, in or- 
der to demonftrate thefe parts in the ordinary 
courfe of my le6lures. From a view then of the 
fituation of the parts, it appears that the Os 
"Externum is not placed in the middle of the 
inferior part of the Pelvis^ but at the anterior 
and inferior part of the Puhes, and that the 
Labia cover likewife the anteriour part of thefe 

Secondly, It may be obferved, that as the JV^- 
num Labiorum, which is nearly adjoining to the 
inferior part of the OJfa Pubis, is only about an 
inch from the Anus, between which and the Coccyx 
there is about three inches diftance, it follows, 
that the Anus is nearer to the firft mentioned 
bones than to the latter* 



Thirdly, The view of this and the following 
table will furnifli proper hints, with refpe6l to 
the method of touching or examining the Os 
Uteri, without hurting or inflaming the parts, as 
it appears that the Os Externum is placed for- 
wards towards the Pubes, and the Os Uteri back- 
wards towards the ReEium and Coccyx^ By this 
wife mechanifm of nature many inconveniences 
are often prevented, which mull happen if thefe 
parts were oppofite to each other, and fituated in 
the middle of the inferior part of the Pelvis, par- 
ticularly a Prolapfus of the Vagina and Uterus, 
cither in the unimpregnated ftate, or in any of 
the firft four months of pregnancy ; as alfo too 
fudden deliveries in any of the laft months. 

Fourthly, From a view of the lituation of the 
parts, it will appear, that in labour, when the Os 
Uteri is fufficiently opened to allow a palfage for 
the head of the Foetus, the fame is protruded to 
the lower part of the Vagina, hy which the exter- 
nal parts are pufhed out in form of ^ large tu- 
mor, as in Table XV. 

Lajlly, It may be obferved, that when it is nec- 
eflary to dilate the Os Externum, the principal 
force ought to be applied downwards and to- 
wards the ReBum, to prevent the Urethra and 
neck of the bladder from being hurt or inflamed. 

Vide Vol. I. Book I, Chap. 2. Sea. i. Vol. II. 

Coll, 2. 




Figure I. Gives a front view of the Uterus in 
Situ fufpended in the Vagina; the anterior 
parts of the Ojfa Ifchium with the OJfa Pubis^ 
Pudenda, Perinceum, and Anus, being removed 
in order to fhew the internal parts. 

A. The lafl Vertebra of the loins. 

B. B. The OJfa Ilium, 

C. C. The Acetabula. 

D. D. The inferior and pofterior parts of 
the OJfa Ifchium, Vide Tab. XXIX, where the 
OJfa Pubis and the anterior parts of the OJfa 
Ifchium are reprefented by dotted lines. 

E. The part covering the extremity of the Coccyx. 

F. The inferior part of the ReEum, 

G. G. The Vagina cut open longitudinally, 
and flretched on each fide of the Collum Uteri, to 
ftiew in what manner the Uterus is fufpended in 
the fame. 

H. H. Part of the Vefica Urinaria ft retched 
on each fide of the Vagina and inferior part of 
the Fundus Uteri. 

I. The Collum Uteri. 

K. The Fundus Uteri, 

L. L. The Tubc^ Fallopiancc and Fimbria, 

M. M. The Ovaria, 

N. N. 



N. N. The Ligamenta Lata and Rotunda. 
O, O. The fuperior part of the Rectum. 

Figure II. Gives a view of the internal parts as 
feen from the right Groin^ the Pelvis being di- 
vided longitudinally. 

A. The loweft Va'tchra of the loins. 

B. C. The Os Sacrum and Coccyx, with the 

D. The left Os Ilimn. 

E. The inferior part of the left Os Ifchium* 

F. The Os Pubis of the fame lide. 

G. The Foramen Magnum. 
H. The Acetabulum. 

I.I.I. The inferiour part of the ReEium and 

K. The Os Externum and Vagina; the Os Uteri 
lying loofely in the fame. 

L. The Vejica Urinaria. 

M. N. The Collum and Fundus Uteri, with a 
view of the cavity of both. The attachment of 
the Vagina round the outfide of the lips of the 
mouth of the Womb is here likewife fhown, as alfo 
the fituation of the Uterus, as it is prelTed down- 
wards and backwards by the Intejimes and Urina- 
ry Bladder, into the concave, and inferiour part 
of the Os Sacrum. 

O. The Ligamenta Lata and Rotunda of the 
left fide. 

P. P. The Fallopian tube, with the Fmbrics. 

Q. The Ovarium of the fame fide. 

R. R. 


R. R. The fuperior part of the ReElum, and 
inferior part of the Colon, 

Figure III. Gives a front view of the Uterus in 
the beginning of the firft month of pregnancy ; 
the anterior part being removed, that the Em* 
^r^'o might appear through the Amnois, the 
Chorion being diire6led oflp. 

A. The Fundus Uteri. 

B. The Collum Uteri, with a view of the rugous 
canal that leads to the cavity of the Fundus^ 

C. The Os Uteri. 

Vide Vol. I. Book I. Chap. 2. Seft. 2, 3. VoL 
II. Coll. 3^. 


Figure I. In the fame view and feftion of the 
parts as in the firll figure of the former table, 
fhows the Uterus as it appears in the fecond or 
.third month of pregnancy, its anterior part 
being here likewife removed. 

F. The Anus. 

G. The Vagina with its Plica: . 

H. H. The pollerior and inferior part of the 



Urinary Bladder extended on each fide, the anteri* 
or and fuperior part being removed. 

I. I. The mouth and neck of the Womb, 2^ 
raifed up when examining the fame by the touch, 
with on^ of the fingers in the Vagina, 
J K. K. The Uterus as ftretched in the fecond or 
third nhonth, containing the Embryo with the 
Phcenta adhering to the Fundus, 

It appears from this and the former table, that 
at this time nothing can be known, with refpe6k 
to pregnancy, from the touch in the Vagina, as 
the refiftance of the Uterus is fo inconfiderable 
that it cannot prevent its being raifed up before 
the finger ; and even were it kept down, the 
length of the neck would prevent the flretching 
being perceptible. The Uterus likewife not be- 
ing ftretched above the Pelvis^ little change i$ 
made as to the figure of the Abdomen, further than 
that the Intejlines are raifed a little higher ; whence 
poffibly the old obfervation of the Abdomen being 
a little flatter at this period than ufual from the 
Intejlines being prefTed more to each fide. Wom- 
en at this period mifcarry oftener than at any 
other : It is a great happinefs, however, in prac- 
tice, that although they are frequently much 
weakened by large difcharges, yet they rarely fink 
under the fame, but are fooner or later relieved 
by labour coming on, which gradually fi:retchcs 
the neck and mouth of the Womb, by the Mem-^ 
hranes being forced down with the waters, and if 
the Placenta is feparated from the internal furface 



of the Uterus, all its contents are difcharged. 
But if the Placenta ftill adheres, the Membranes 
break, the waters and Foetus are expelled, and the 
flooding diminifhes from the Uterus contradling 
clofe to the Secundines, which alfo are ufually dif- 
charged fooner or later. 

From the ftru6lure finally of the parts, as rep- 
refented in this and the former table, it may ap^ 
pear that it is much fafer to reflrain the flooding, 
and fupport the patient, waiting with patience the 
eflports of nature, than to endeavour to ftretch the 
Os Uteri, and deliver either with the hand or in- 
ftruments, which might endanger a laceration and 
inflammation of the parts. 

Vide C. in Table XXXVIL Alfo, Vol. I. Book 
IL Chap. 2. Seel. 2, 3, 4. Vol. IL Coll. 12. No. 2. 

Figure IL Reprefents the Uterus in the fourth 
or fifth month of pregnancy, in the fame view 
and feftion of the parts with the former figure, 
excepting that in this the anterior part of the 
Coilum Uteri is not removed. 

In Ihe natural fituation, the mouth and lips of 
the Wo7nb are covered with the Vagina, and thefe 
parts are contiguous to each other, but here the 
Vagina G. is a little ftretched from the neck and 
lips of the former, in order to fliovv the parts more 
diftmaiy. I. The neck of the Wo7nb, which ap^ 
pears in this figure thicker, fliorter, and lofter 
than in the former. K. The inferiour part of 
the Fmdits Uteri, the ftretching of which can 



fometimes be felt through the Vagina, by pufhing 
up a finger on the anterior or lateral part of 
the fame. 

The Uterus now is fo largely ftretched as to 
fill all the upper part of the Pelvis, and begins 
alfo'to increafe fo much as to reft on the brim, 
and to be fupported by the fame, the Fandus at 
the fame time being raifed confiderably above the 
Puhes. From the Abdomen being now more 
ftretched, the woman is more fenfible of her grow- 
ing bigger, and the Uterus alfo, from the counter- 
prefTure of the contents and parietes of the Ah- 
do7nen, is kept down, and the Os Uteri prevented 
from rifmg before the finger as formerly. In 
lean women, the ftretching of the Uterus can fome- 
times be perceived in the Vagina at this period as 
well as above the Pubes : But nothing certain 
can be difcovered from the refiftance or feel of 
the mouth of the Womb or Lips, which are com- 
monly the fame in the firft months of pregnancy 
as before it. 

The fize or bulk of the Foetus is finally here to 
be obferved, with the Placenta adhering to the 
pofterior part of the Uterus, 

Vide the references to Vol. I, and II, in the 
former table. 




Reprefents the Abdomen of a woman opened in 
the fixth or feventh month of pregnancy^ 

A. A. A. A. The parietes of the Abdomen open- 
ed, and turned back to (how 

B. The Uterus, 

C. C. C. The Intejlines raifed upwards. 

D. The Labia Pudendi, which are fometimes af- 
fected in pregnancy with edematous (weUings, oc- 
cafioned by the preffure of the Uterus upon the 
returning veins, and .Lymphatics, If the Labia 
are fo tumefied as to obflru6l the patient's walk- 
ing, the complaint is removed by pundluring the 
parts affedled. By which means the ferous fluid 
is difcharged for the prefent, but commonly re- 
curs ; and the fame operation muft be repeated 
feveral times, perhaps, before delivery, after 
which, however, the tumefa6lion entirely fub- 
fides. Here it may be obferved, that this com- 
plaint can feldom or never obflruCl delivery, as 
the Labia are fituated at the anterior part of the 

, OJa Pubis, and can rarely affe£l the ftretching of 
the Frcenum, Perina^um, Vagina, and ReBum. 
From this figure it appears that the ftretching of 
the Uterus can eafily be felt at this period in lean 
fubje6ts, through the parietes of the Abdomen ; 
efpecially if the Intejlines do not lie before it. 
In general, indeed, as the Uterus ftretches, it rifes 



higher, by which means the Intejlines are likewifc 
raifed higher, and are alto preffed to each fide. 
Hence the nearer the woman is to her full time, 
the ftretching is the more eafily felt. 

N, B, Oedematous fwellings, fymptomatick of 
pregnancy, afFefting the labia, have in few, if 
any inftances, been obferved to interrupt the prog* 
refs of labour ; therefore the difcharge of the fe- 
rous fluid by pun61ure is feldom requifite ; and 
repeated punHure in advanced geftation might be 
attended with difagreeable confequences. 

Vide Vol. I. Bookl. Chap. 3. Seft. 3. BookllL 
Ghap. 1. Se£l, 2. and Vol. II. Coll. 12, 13* 


In the fame view and fe6lion of the parts as in 
Table VI. is reprefented the Uterus oi the form- 
er table, in order to (hew its contents, and the 
internal parts as they appear in the fixth or 
feventh month of pregnancy. 

A. The Uterus flretched up to the Umbilical 

B. B. The fuperior part of the OJfa Ilium* 

C. C. The Acetahula, 

D.D. The remaining pofterior parts of the 
OJfa Ijchium, 
E. The Ams. 

F, The 


F. The Vagina. 

;G. The bladder of Urine. 

H. The neck of the Womb fhorter than in Table 
VI, and raifed higher by the ftretching of the 
Uterus above the brim of the Pelvis. 

I, The yelfels of the Uterus larger than in the 
unimpregnated flate. 

K. K. The Placenta adhering to the inferior 
and pofterior part of the Uterus. 

L. L. The Membranes that furround the Foetus, 
the head of which is here reprefented, as well as 
of thofe in Table VI, iituated downwards at the 
inferiour part of the Uterus, and which I am apt 
to believe is the ufual fituation of the Foetus, when 
at reft, and furrounded with a great quantity of 
waters, as the head is heavier than any other part. 
With refpe6i: to the fituation of the body of the 
Foetus, though the fore parts are often turned to- 
wards the fides and pofterior parts of the Uterus, 
they are here as well as in the foregoing table 
reprefented at the anterior part or forwards, in 
order to fliow them in a more diftin61: and pic- 
turefque manner. 

Vide Vol. I. Book I. Chap. 3. Sed. 3, 4. Vol. 
11. Coll. 13. No. 1. 

From this table may appear the difficulty of 
ftretching the Os Uteri in flooding cafes, even at 
this period, from the length and thicknefs of the 
neck of the Womb, efpecially in a firft pregnancy : 
Much the fame method, however, is to be follow- 
ed here as was diredled in table VI, until labour 



comes on to dilate the Os Uteri. If the flooding 
is then confiderable, the Me7nhrams fhould be 
broken, that the Uterus may contrad, and thereby 
leflbn the difcharge. The labour iikewife, if it. 
is neceffary, may be affifted by dilating the Os 
Uteri in time of the pains ; which alfo, if 
wanting, may be provoked by the fame method 
when the patient is in danger. If this danger is 
imminent, and the woman feems ready to expire, 
the Uterus, as appears from this table, is at this 
time fufliciently flretched to receive the opera- 
tor's hand to extra6f the Foetus, if the Os Liter-- 
num can be fafely dilatedi 

Lajlly, It may be obferved that w^omen are in 
greater danger at this period, and afterwards, than 
in the fornrer months. 

Vide Vol.1. Book III. Ghap. 4. Sed. 3. No. 1, 
!2, 3. Vol. IIIo ColL 33. No. 2. See alfo in the 
Edinburgh Phyfical and Literary Obfervations^ 
Art. XVII, the dilTeftion of a woman with child, 
by Dr. Donald Miinro, phyfician at London. 

See, DireQions for the management in cafes of 
flooding, Dr. Hamilton s Outlines of Midn^ifery, 
page 401* 


In the fame view and fe6lion of the parts with 
the former, reprefents the Uterus in the eip-hth 
or ninth month of pregnancy, 

B A. The 


A. The Uterus as ftretched to near its full ex- 
tent, with the waters, and containing the Fxtus 
entangled in the Funis, the head prefenting at the 
upper part of the Pelvis. 

B. B. The fuperior part of the OJfa Ilium, 

C. C. The Acetabula, 

D. D, The remaining poflerior parts of the Of- 
fa Ifchium, 

E. The Coccyx. 

F. The inferior part of the ReBum. 

G. G. G. The Vagina ftretched on each fide. 
H. The Os Uteri, the lips of which appear 

larger and fofter than in the foregoing table, the 
neck of the Womb being likewife ftretched to its 
full extent, or entirely obliterated, 

LI. Part of the Vejica Urinaria. 

K. K. The Placenta at the fuperior and pof- 
terior part of the Uterus. 

L. L. The Membranes. 

M. The Fimis Umhilicalis. 

This and the foregoing table fhow in what 
manner t\i€ Uterus ftretches, and how its neck 
grows fhorter, in the different periods of preg- 
nancy ; as alfo the magnitude of the Foetus, in 
order more fully to explain Vol. L Book I. Chap. 
3; Sed. 4, 5. Alfo Book III. Chap. 1. Se6t. 1, 2. 
Likewife Vol. 11. Coll. 13. No. 1. 

Notwithftanding it has been handed down as 
an invariable truth, from the earlieft accounts of 
the art, to the prefent times, that when the head 
of the Foetus prefented, the face was turned to the 






pofterior part of the Pelvis, yet from Mr. Quid's 
obfervation, as well as from fome late difleclions 
of the gravid Uterus, and what 1 myfelf have ob- 
fervfed in praftife^ I am led to believe that the 
head prefents for the moft part as is here delin- 
eated, with one ear to the Pubes, and the other td 
the Os Sacrum ; though fometimes this may vary, 
according to the form of the head, as wi;il as that 
of the Pelvis. 

Confialt Dr. Hunter s elegant plates of the grav- 
id Uterus, 


Gives a front view of Twins in Utei'Oj in the be- 
ginning of labour, the anterior parts being 
removed, as in the preceding tables. 

A. The Uterus, as ftretched with the Membranes 
and waters. 

B. B. The fuperior parts of the OJfa Ilium. 
G. C. The Acetabula, 

* D. D. The OJa IJchium. 

E. The Coccyx, 

F. The lower part of the ReBim. 

G. G. The Vagina, 

H. The Os Internum ftretched open about a. 
finger's breadth with the Membranes aftd water$ 
in time of labour pains. 

Bia I.LThs 


L L The inferior part of the Uterus ftretched 
with the waters which are below the head of 
the child that prefents. 

K.K. The tw^o Placentas adhering to the pof- 
terior part of the Uterus, the two Fxtufes lying 
before them, one with its head in a proper pofi- 
tion, at the inferior part of the Uterus, and the 
other fituated preternaturally, with the head to 
the Fundus : The bodies of each are here en- 
tangled in th^ir proper Funis, which frequently 
happens in the natural as well as preternatural 

L. L. L. The Meinbranes belonging to each 

This reprefentation of twins, according to the 
ot-der obferved in my Treatife of Midwifery, 
ought to have been placed among the lafl tables ; 
but as that was of no confequence, I have placed 
it here in order to Ihow the Os Uteri grown much 
thinner than in the former figure, a little open, 
and ilretched by the waters and Membranes which 
are pufhed down before the head of one of the 
Fxtujes in time of a labour pain. With refpe6i 
to the pofition of twins, it is often different in dif- 
ferent cafes ; but was thus, in a late difre6i;ion of 
a gravid Uterus by Dr. Mackenzie, 

Vide Vol. L Book IIL Chap. i. Sed. 4. and 
Chap. 5. Seel. 1. and Vol. II. Coll. 14. and Vol. 
IIL Coil. 37. 

For the improved management in cafes of plu- 
rality of children, fee Dr. Hamilton's Outlines of 
Midwifery, page 412, 






wixx^ EXPLANATIONS, 8cc. 

Exhibits another front view of tht gravid Uterus 
in the beginning of labour ; the anterior parts 
being removed, as in the former table ; but in 
this the Membranes, not being broken, form a 
large bag containing the waters and Fcetus, 

A. The fubftance of the Uterus, 

B. B. C. C. D. D. The bones of the Pelvis. 

E. The Coccyx, 

F. The inferior part of the ReBiim. 

G. G. G. G. The Vagina, 

H. H. The mouth of the wowHargely ftretched 
in time of a pain, with I. the Membranes and wa- 
ters. This circumftance makes it ufually certain 
that labour is begun, whereas from the degree of 
dilatation reprefented in the former table, there is 
little to be afcertained, unlefs the pains are reg- 
ular and ftrong, the Os Uteri being often found 
more open feveral days, and even weeks, before 
labour commences. 

K. The Chorion, 

L. The fame dilTe&d off at the inferior part 
of the Uterus, in order to fhow the head of the 
Foetus through the Amnois, N. B. This hint is 
taken from one of Dr. Albmus's tables of the ^rav^ 
id Uterus. 

B 3 M. The 


M. The Placenta, the ex^el^al convex furface 
of which, divided into ^ nurpbe]^ of Loh^s^, is here 
reprefented, its concave internal parts being cov- 
ered hy the Chorion, 

The Placenta hdiS been fo.und adhering to all 
the different parts of the internal furface of the 
Uierus^ and {ometiraes even over the infide of the 
Os Uteri ; this laft; manner of adhefion, however, 
r^lways occaiion3 floodings as foon as the fame 
begins to dilate. 

Tables VI, VIII, IX, X, fh<»\r th&^internal fur. 
face of the Placenta towards the Fxtus, with the 
velTels compofmg its fubifance proceeding froni 
the Funis which is inferted, ixi different Placentas, 
into ail the different parts of the fame, as well as 
in the middle. 

The thirtieth and thirty third tables ihew the 
infer tion of the Fimis\xxt,othQ.Abdoi^enoit]iQ Fcetus^ 

With refpe6t to the expullion of the Placenta^ 
"whai i\iQ Membra^ics break, the Uterus conirdidk^ 
83 the waters are evacuated until it comes in con^ 
ta6f with the body of the Foetus : The fame being 
delivered, the Uterus grows much thicker, and 
contrafts clofely to the Placenta and Membranes, 
by which means they are gradually feparated, 
and forced into the Vagijia. This Ihews that we 
ought to follow the method which nature teaches, 
waiting with patience, and allowing it to feparate 
in a flow manner, which is much fafer pra6lice, 
efpecially when the patient is weak ; as the dif- 
charge is neither fo great or fudden as when the 


WITH explanations; ^c. if 

placenta is hurried down in the too commori 
method. But then we mufl not run into the 
other extreme, but alii ft, when nature is not fuf- 
ficient to expel the fame. 

Vide Vol.1. Book III. Chap. i. SeQ:, 4. Chap. 
2. $€6^. 2. 5. Vol. II. Coll. 14. 23. Alfo Dr. 
Hamilton s Outlines of Midwifery, p. 211, et feq* 


Shows, in a lateral view and longitudinal divifion 
of the parts, the gravid Uterus, when labour is 
fomewhat advanced. 

A. The lowed Vertebra of the back. 

B. The Scrobicuhs Cordis, the diftance from 
which to the laft mentioned Vertebra is here fhown 
by dotted lines ; as alfo part of the region below 
the Diaphragm, 

C. C. The ufual thicknefs and jfigure of the 
Uterus when extended with the waters at the lat- 
ter end of pregnancy. 

D. The fame contra61:ed and grown thicker af- 
ter the waters are evacuated. 

E. E. The figure of the Uterus when pendulous. 
In this cafe, if the Membranes break when the pa- 
tient is in an ered pofition, the head of the Fxtits 
runs a rifk of flidmg over and above the OJfa Pu^ 

B 4 bis, 


bis, whence the fhoulders will be pufhed into thei 

F. F. The figure of the Uterus when flretched 
higher than ufual, which generally occafions. 
vomitings and difRculty of breathing. Confult 
on this fubjeQ Mr. Levret fur le mechanifm©. 
de difFerentes groirefles. 

G. The Os Pubis of the left fide, 
H. K. The Os Internum, 

I. The Vagina, 

K. The left Nympha, 

L. The Labium Pudendi of the fame fide. 

M. The remaining portioh of the bladder. 

N. The Anus, 

O, P. The left hip and thigh. 

In this period of labour, the Os Uteri being 
more and more ftretched by the Membranes pufh- 
ing down, and beginning to e^ctend the Vagina, a 
great quantity of waters is forced down at the 
fame time, and, if the Membranes break, is dif- 
charo^ed ; whence the Uterus contra61;s itfelf near- 
er to the body of the Foetus, which is here repre- 
fented in a natural pofition, with the Vertex reft- 
ino- at the fuperior part of the OJfa Pubis, and the 
forehead towards the right Os Ilium. As foon as 
the Uterus is in conta6l with the body of the Foetus, 
the head of the fame is forced backward towards 
the Os Sacrum from the line of the Abdomen B, G. 
into that of the Pelvis, viz. from the uppermofl 
F. to near the end of the Coccyx, and is gradually 
pufhed lower, as in the following Table. 




If the Membranes do not break immediately 
upon their being puftied into the Vagina, they 
fhould be allowed to protrude flill further in or- 
der to dilate the Os Externum. 

Vide Vol. I. Book I. Chap. 2. Sed. 2. Chap. 3. 
Se61;3. Book III. Chap. 1. Se6t. 1, 2. 4. Chap. 2, 
Sed. 3. Chap. 3. Sed. 4. No. 5. Vol. II. Coll. 
10. No. 4. Cafe 3, 4. Coll. 14. Vol. III. Coll, 
§4. No. 2. Cafe 4. 


in the fame view and fe6lion of the parts as in 
Table VI, fiiows the natural pofition of the 
head of the Foetus when funk down into the 
middle of the Pelvis after the Os Internum is 
fully opened, a large quantity of the waters 
being protruded with the M^m^r^w^fs. through 
the Os Externum, but prevented from being all 
difcharged, by the head's filling up the Vagina. 

A. The Uterus a little contra 6led, and thicker, 
from fome of the waters being funk down before 
the child, or difcharged. 

B. B. The fuperior parts of the OJJa Ilium. 

C. The inferior part of the Recfum, 

D. D. The Vagina largely ftretched with the 
bead of the Foetus. 

E. E. The 


E. E. The Os Internum fully opened. 

F. A portion of the Placenta, 

G. G. The Membranes, 

H. H. The Ligamenta Lata. 
I. L The Ligamenta Rotunda, Bath thefe lafl 
firetched upwards with the Uterus, 

The Vertex of the Fcetus being now down at 
the inferior part of the right Os Ijchium, and the 
wide part of the head at the narrow and inferior 
part of the Pelms, the forehead by the force of 
the pains is gradually moved backwards, and as 
it advances lower, the Vertex and Occifut turn out 
below the Fubes, as in the next Table. Hence 
may be learnt of what confequence it is to know, 
that it is wider from fide to fide at the brim of 
the Pelvis, than from the back to the forepart, and 
that it is wid«r from the fore to the hind head of 
the child, than from ear to ear. 

Vide Vol. 1, Book L Chap. i. Sed. 3. 5. Alfo 
Book IIL Chap. 3. Seft. 3, 4. No. 3. Vol. II, 
ColL 14. 


In a fimilar view and fe6lion of the parts with 
Table XII, fhows the forehead of the Foetus turn- 
ed [in its progreffion downwards, from its pofi- 







lion in the former Table] backwards to the Os 
Sacrum, and the Occiput below the Pubes, by which 
means the narrow part of the head is to the nar- 
row part of the Pelvis, that is, between the infe- 
rior parts of the Offa Ifchium, Hence it may be 
obferved, that though the diftance between the 
inferior parts of the la ft mentioned bones is much 
the fame, as between the Coccyx and Piibes, yet as 
the cavity of the Pelvis is much fhallower at the 
anterior than lateral part, the Qcciput of the Foetus, 
when come down to the inferior part of either 
Os Ifchium, turns out below the Pubes ; this an- 
fwers the fame end a& if the Pelvis itfelf had been 
wider from the pofterior part than from fide to 
fide ; the head likewife enlarging the cavity by 
forcing back the Coccyx, and pulhing out the ex- 
ternal parts in form of a large tumor, as is more 
fully defcribed in the following Table. 

Vide VoL 1 5. II, as referred to in the preceding 

A. The Uterus con traded clofely to the Fxtus 
after the waters are evacuated. 

B. C. D. The Vertebrae of the loins, Os Sacrum 
jind Coccyx, 

E. The Anns, 

F. The left hip. 

G. The Permceum^ 

H. The Os Externum beginning to dilate. 
I. The Os Pubis of the left fide. 
K. The remaming portion of the bladder. 
L. The pofterior part of the Os Uteri, 



i\^. B. Although for the moil part, at or before 
this peiiod, the waters are evacuated, yet it often 
happens, that rriore or lefs will be retained, and 
not all difcharged, until after the delivery of 
the child ; occafioned from the prefenting part 
of the Fa:tus coming into clofe contaft with the 
lower or under part of the Uterus, Vagina, or Os 
Externum, immediately, or foon after the Mem- 
branes break. 

*^»>»-®>»<£0^aQ>g 4-® « < i <f **s ^'> 


Is intended principally to fhow in what manner 
the Perinceum and external parts are ftretched 
hy the head of the Foetus, in a firfl pregnancyy 
towards the end of labour. 

A. The Abdomen, 

B. The Labia Pudendi. 

JC. The Clitoris, and its Prceputium. 

D. The hairy fcalp of the Foetus fwelled at the 
Vertex, in a laborious cafe, and protruded to the 
Os Externum. 

E. F. The Perinceum and Anus pufhed out by 
the head of the Fxtus in form of a large Tumor, 

G. G. The parts that cover the Tuherofities of 
the OJfa Jjchiiim. 

H. The part that covers the Os Coccygis. 






The Perinceum in this figure is flretched two inch- 
es, or nearly double its length in the natural flate ; 
but when the Os Extermm is fo much dilated by 
the head of the Fxtus as to allow the delivery of 
the fame, the Perinceum is generally flretched to 
the length of three, and fometimes four inches. 

The Anus is likewife lengthened an inch, the 
parts alfo between it and the Coccyx being much 
didended. All this ought to caution the young 
pra6litioner never to precipitate the delivery at 
this time, but to wait, and allow the parts to dilate 
in a flow manner, as from the violence of the 
labour pains, the fudden delivery of the head of 
the Fxtus might endanger the laceration of the 
parts. The palm of the operator's hand ought 
therefore to be preiTed againft the Perinceum, that 
the head may be prevented from pafling until the 
Os Externum is fufficiently dilated, to allow its 
delivery without tearing the Frcenum, and parts 
betwixt that and the Anus, which are at this time 
very thin. 

Vide Vol. I. Book III. Chap. 2. Seft. 2. Chap. 
4. Se6l. 4. No. 1. and Book IV. Chap. 1. Se6l. 1. 
Alfo, Vol. II. Coll. 14. 24. Vol. III. Coll. 40. 
Alfo, direftions for the management of natural 
labour in Dr. Hamilton's Outlines of Midwifery, 
page 207, and feq. and the Judicious Obferva- 
tions and directions of Charles White, Efq; 
F. R. S. Manchefler, third edition of his Treatife 
on the Management of Pregnant and Lying in 
Women, Chap. 5. page 82 to 113. 




And the three following, fhow in what manner 
the head of the Fottus is helped along with the 
forceps, as artificial hands, when it is neceffary 
to afTifl with the fame for the fafety of either 
mother or child. In this Table the head is 
reprefented as forced down into the Pelvis by 
the labour pains, from its former pofition in 
Table XII. 

A. A. B. C. The Vertehrce of the loins, Os Sa^ 

£rum and Coccyx, 

D. The Os Pubis of the left fide. 

E. The remaining part of the bladder. 
F* F. The Intejlinum Re^im^ 

G. G. G. The Uterus. 
H. The Mons Veneris, 
1. The Clitoris with the left Nympha. 
X. The Corpus Cavernofum Clitoridis. 
V. The Meatus Urinarius. 
K. The left Labium Pudtndi. 
L. The Anus, 
N. The Perinceum. 
O. P. The kft hip and thigh. 
R, The ikin and mufcular part of the loins. 




The patient in this cafe maybe, as in this Ta-» 
ble, on her iide, with her breech a little over the 
fide or foot of the bed, her knees being likewife 
pulled up to her belly, and a pillow placed be- 
tween them, care being taken at the fame time 
that the parts are by a proper covering defended 
from the external air. If the hairy fcalp of the 
Fostus is fo fwelled that the fituation of the head 
cannot be diftinguilhed by the Sutures as in Ta- 
ble XXI, or if by introducing a finger between 
the head of the child and the Pubes, or Groin, 
the ear or back part of the neck cannot be felt, 
the Os Externum muil be gradually dilated in the 
time of the pains with the operator's fingers 
(previoufly lubricated with hog's lard) until the 
whole hand can be introduced into the Vagina, 
and flipped up in a flattifh form between the 
pofterior part of the Pelvis and child's head. 
This laft is then to be raifed up as high as is 
poflible, to allow room for the fingers to reach 
the ear and pofterior part of the neck. When 
the pofition of the head is known, the operator 
muft withdraw his hand, and wait to fee if the 
ftretching of the parts will renew or increafe the 
labour pains, and allow more fpace for the ad- 
vancement of the head in the Pelvis, If this, 
however, proves of no efFe6t, the fingers are again 
to be introduced as before, and one of the blades of 
the forceps (lubricated with lard) is then to be ap- 
plied along the infide of the hand or fingers, and 
left ear of the child, as reprefented in the table. 
But if the Pelvis is diftorted, and projeds for- 


ward at the fuperior part of the Os Sacrurfi, and 
the forehead therefore cannot be moved a little 
backwards, in order to turn the ear from that 
part of the Pelvis which prevents the end of the 
forceps to pafs the fame ; in that cafe, I fay, the 
blade muft be introduced along the pofterior 
part of the ear at the fide of the diflorted bone. 
The hand that was introduced is then to be with- 
drawn, and the handle of the introduced blade 
held with it as far back as the Perinceu7?i will al- 
low, whilft the fingers of the other hand are in- 
troduced to the Os Uteri, at the Pubes or right 
Groin, and the other blade placed exaftly oppo- 
fite to the former. This done, the handles being 
taken hold of and joined together, the head is to 
be pulled lower and lower, every pain, until the 
V^ertex, as in this table, is brought down to the: 
inferior part of the left Ifchium, or below the 
fame. The wide part of the head being now ad- 
vanced to the narrow part of the Pelvis betwixt 
the Tuberofities of the OJfa Ifchium, is to be turn- 
ed from the left Ifchium out below the Pubes, and 
the forehead backwards to the concave part of 
the Os Sacrum and Coccyx, as in Table XVII,- 
and afterwards the head brought along and de- 
livered, as in Table XVIII, and XIX. But 
if it is found that the delivery will require 
a confiderable degree of force from the head's 
being large, or the Pelvis narrow, the handles 
of the forceps are to be tied together with a 
fillet, as reprefented in this Table, to prevent 
their pofition being changed, whilft the woni^ 




an is turned oil her back as in Table XXIV, 
which is then more convenient for delivering the 
head than when lying on the fide. 

N. B, When the head is wedded in the Pelvis^ 
and the balis not yet protruded below the brim^ 
the forceps can neither be employed with advan- 
tage nor fafety ; and to attempt the mechanical 
turns recommended here would be difficult and 

This Table fhows that the handles of the for- 
ceps ought to be held as far back as the Os Ex^ 
termtm will allow, that che blades may be in an 
imaginary line between that and the middle fpace 
between the Umbilicus and the Scrobiculus Cordis,, 
When the forceps are applied along the ears and 
lides of the head, they are nearer to one another, 
have a better hold, and mark lefs than when oveir' 
the Occipital and Frontal bones. 

Vide Vol. I. Book. III. Chap. 3. from Se3:. 1. 
to 6. and Vol. II. Coll. 25, 26, 27, and 29. 


In the fame view with the former, reprefents, in 
outlines, the head of the Fcctus brought lo v^er 
with the forceps, and turned from the pofition 
in the former Table, in imitation of the natur- 
al progreflion hy the labour pains, which may 
C likewife 


likewife be fuppofed to have made this turn, 
before it was neceflary to aiTiil; with the for- 
ceps, this GeccfTity at laft arifmg from many 
of the caufes mentioned in VoL L 

In this view the pofition of the forceps, along 
the ears and narrow part of the head, is more 
particularly exprelTed. It appears alfo that when 
the Ve7''tex is turned from the left Os Jfcliimi, 
where it was clofely confined, it is difengagedby 
coming out below the Pubes, and the forehead 
that was prelfed agaiarft the middle of the right 
Os Ifchium is turned into the concavity of the Os 
Sacrum and Coccyx. By this means .the narrow 
part of the head is now between the OJfa Ifchium, 
or narrow part of the Pelvis, and as the Occiput 
comes out below the Pubes, the head paffes fliil 
eafier along. When the head is advanced fo low 
in the Pelvis, if the pofition cannot be diflinguifh- 
ed by the futures, it may for the mod part be 
known by feeling for the back part of the neck 
of the Foetus, with a finger, introduced betwixt 
the Occiput' and Pubes, or towards one of the 
Groins. If the head is fqueezed into a longifli 
form, as in Table XXI, and has been detained 
many hours in this pofition, the pains not being 
fiifficient to complete the delivery ; the afliilance 
of the forceps muft be taken to fuve the child, 
though the woman may be in no danger. 

The ajfiftance of the forceps mufl be taken to favt 
the child., though the woman be in no danger. This 
may require a little explanation. The exact di- 



menfions of a child's head cannot eafilybe afcer- 
tained before delivery ; nor can it be known 
how long a labour may be protracted, without any 
material injury to the mother. The changes the 
head of the Foetus fufFers both in its figure and 
diminution of bulk, by compreilion, render it 
capable of paffing in fome cafes where we would 
little expe.6t it. On the contrary, when the head 
is but little advanced, and wedged in the Pelvis, 
the forceps are applied under obvious difadvan- 
tages; lince it is well known to practitioners, 
that women fufFer the natural bruifes with more 
fafety than thofe occafioned by the bell con- 
flru6led modern inftruments, in the hands of 
the moll Ikiiful pra6litioners. The forceps^ 
therefore, in general, Ihould not be ufed, efpeci- 
ally in the early part of a man's pra6lice, except 
only on the moH urgent occajions. And if the 
head is detained at the brim of the Pelvis, as in 
the former Table, the cafe is unfavourable for the 

See this important precaution further enforced, 
page 37, line 4. 

This Table alfo fhows that the handles of the 
forceps are ftill to be kept back to the Perinceum, 
and when in this pofition are in a line with the 
upper part of the Sacrum^ and if held more back- 
wards, when the head is a little higher, would be 
in |i line with the Scrobiculus Cordis, If the for- 
ceps are applied when the head is in this pofi- 
tion, they are more eafily introduced when the 
patifent is in a fupipe pofition, as in Table XXIV, 

C 2 Neither 


Neither is it necefTary to tie the handles, which 
is only done to prevent their alteration when 
turning the woman from her fide to her back. 

As I have had feveral cafes where a longer 
fort of forceps that are curved upwards are of 
great ufe to help along the head, when the body 
is delivered firft, as in Table XXXV, the fame 
are reprefented here by dotted lines. They may 
be ufed in laborious cafes as well as the others, 
but are not managed with the fame eafe. 

Moil of the parts of this Table being marked 
with the fame letters as the former, the defcrip- 
tions there given will anfwer in this, except the 

L. M. The Anns. 

M. N. The Perinceum, 

O. The common Integuments of the Abdomen, 

R. The fhort forceps. 

S. The long curved forceps, the firft of thefe 
is eleven inches long, and the laft twelve inches 
and a half, which I have after feveral alterations 
found fufficient, but this need not confine others 
who may choofe to alter them from this flandard. 

Vide Table XXXVII. 




In the fame View and Se6lion of the parts, fhows 
the head of the Foetus in the fame pofition, but 
brought lower down with the forceps than in 
the former Table ; for in this the Os Externum 
is more open, the Occiput comes lower down 
from below the Piibes, and the forehead pafl 
the Coccyxy by which both the Anus and Peri^ 
ncpimi are ftretched out in form of a large 
tumor, as in Table XV. 

When the head is fo far advanced, the opera- 
tor ought to extraft with great caution, left the 
parts fhould be torn. If the labour pains are 
fufficient, the forehead may be kept down, and 
helped along in a flow manner by preifmg againft 
it with the fingers on the external parts below 
the Coccyx : At the fame time the forceps being 
taken ofiF, the head may be allowed to ftretch the 
Os Externum more and more in a gradual man- 
ner, from the force of the labour pains, as well 
as afTiftanceof the fingers. But if the former are 
weak and infufficient, the afliftanceof the forceps 
muft be continued. Vide the defcription of the 
parts in Table XVI. S. T. in this reprefent tho 
left fide of the Os Uteri, The dotted lines dem- 
onftrate the fituation of the bones of the Pelvis 

C 3 on 


on the right fide, and may ferve as an example 
for all the lateral views of the fame. 

a. b. c. h. The outlines of the Os Iliiim. 
D. e. f. The fame of the Pubis and Ijchiim, 
i. i. k. The Acetabulum. And 
m. n. The Foramen Magnum: 

Vide Vol. I. Book IIL Chap. 5. Seft. 3. VoL 
II. Coll. 25. 


In the fame view and Section of the Pelvis^ is 
intended by out lines to fhow, that as the extern- 
al parts are flretched, and the Os Externum is 
dilated, the Occiput of the Fxtus rifes up with a 
femicircular turn from out below the Pubes, the 
under part of which bones are as an axis, or ful- 
crum, on which the back part of the neck turns, 
whilft at the fame time the forehead and face in 
their turn upwards, diftend largely the parts be- 
tween the Coccyx, and Os Externum. This is the 
method obferved by nature in ftretching thefe 
parts in labour, and as nature is always to be 
imitated, the fame method ought to be followed, 
when it is neceifary to help along the head with 
the forceps. 





Vide the three former Tables for the defcrip- 
tions and references. 


In the fame Seclion of the parts, but with a view 
of the rischt fide, {hows the head of the Fxtus 
in the contrary pofition to the three laft fig- 
ures, the Vertex being here in the concavity of 
the Sacrum, and the forehead turned to the 

A. B. The Vertebrce of the loins, Os Sacrum and 

C. The Os Pubis of the right fide. 

D. The Anus, 

E. The Os Externum not yet begun to ilretch. 

F. The Nympha, 

G. The Labium Piidendi of the right fide. 
H. The hip and thigh. 

I.I. The . £//erMS contraQed, the waters being 
ail difcharored. 


When the head is fmalL and the Pelvis larore, 
the Parietal bones and the forehead will, in this 
cafe, as they are forced downwards by the labour 
pains, gradually dilate the Os Externum, and 
flretch the parts between that and the Coccyx in 
form of a large tumor, as in Table XV, until the 

C 4 face 


face comes down below the Pub es, when the head 
will be fafeiy delivered. But if the fame be 
large, and the Pelvis narrow, the difficulty will be 
greater, and the child in danger; as in the fol- 
lowing Table. 

F7^^ Vol. L Book IIL Chap. 3. Sed. 4. No, 
3. Vol. IL" Coil. 16. No. 2. 


SSows the head of the Pectus in the fame poiition 
as in the former Table, but being much larger, 
it is by llrong labour pains fqueezed into a 
longilh form with a tumor on the Vertex, from 
the long compreffion of the head in the Pelvis, 
If the child cannot be delivered with the labour 
pains, or turned and brought footling*, the 
forceps are to be applied on the head as de» 
fcribed in <;his figure, and brought along as it 
prefents ; but if that cannot be done without 
running the rifque of tearing the Perinceum, 
and even the Vagina and ReBum of the woman, 
the forehead mud be turned backwards to the 
Sacrum, To do this niore effe6lually, thq 


*Turnivg, when the head is fo far advanced in the Pelvis, and of ^ 
more than ufual fize, i? a dreadful praftice, and fhould never be 




operator muft grafp firmly with both hands 
the handles of the forceps, and at the fame 
time puftiing upwards, raife the head as high 
as poffible, in order to turn the forehead to 
one fide, by which it is brought into the nat- 
ural pofition ; this done, the head may be 
brought down • and delivered as in Table 
XVI. &c. 

Vide Vol.1. Booklll. Chap. 3. Sea. 4. No. 2. 
and Vol. II. Coll. 28. Alfo the former Table for 
the defcription of the parts, except 

K. The tumor on the Vertex, The fame com- 
preffion and elongation of the head, as well as 
the tumor on the Vertex, may be fuppofed to hap- 
pen in a greater or lefs. degree in the XVl, XVII, 
XVIII, XIX Tables, as well as in this, where the 
difficulty proceeds from the head being large, or 
the Pelvis narrow. Vide Tables XXVII, and 

L. The forceps. Sometimes the forehead may 
be moved to the natural pofition by the afli (lance 
of the fingers, or only one blade of the forceps. 

N. B. Though the ufe of a fingle blade of 
the forceps, or the fimple lever, is ftill retained 
in practice, and in a few particular cafes may be 
employed in preference to the double lever, the 
application is more difficult, more flight and pro- 
feffional judgment are neceffary in the manage- 
ment, and the two bladcd forceps can be em- 
ployed with more fafety and equal fuccefs, in 
general, by young praQitioners. The forceps 

^ may 


may either be the ftraight kind, or fuch as are 
curved to one fide, when it is neceffary to ufe 
one or both blades. 

M. The Vejica Urinaria much diflended with a 
large quantity of Urine, from the long preffure of 
the head againfl the Urethra, which fhows that 
the Urine ought to be drawn off with a Caiheier, 
in fuch extraordinary cafes, before you apply the 
forceps, or in preternatural cafes, where the child 
is brought footling. 

N, . The under part of the Uterus, . 

O. O. The Os Uteri. 


Shows, in a front view of the parts, the forehead 
of the Fostus prefenting at the brim of the Pel- 
vis, the face being turned to one fide, the Fon- 
tanelle to the other, and the feet and breech 
ftretched tov/ards the Fundus Uteri, 

A. A. The fuperior part of the OJ[a Ilium. 

B. The Anus. 

C. The Perincsum. 

D. The Os Externum ; the thicknefs of the 

poflerior part before it is llretched with the head 

of the child. 

E. E. E. The 




Mr A, 



E. E. E. The Vagina, 

F. The Os Uteri not yet fully dilated. 
G.G.G. The Uterus. 

H. The Membrana Adifofa, , // i 


If the face is not forced down, the head will 
fometimes come along in this manner ; in which 
cafe the Vertex will be flattened, and the forehead 
raifed in a conical form ; and when the head 
comes down to the lower part of the Pelvis, the 
face or Occiput will be turned from the fide, and 
come out below the Fubes, But if the head is 
large, and cannot be delivered by the pains, or 
if the wrong pofition cannot be altered, the child 
muft be delivered with the forceps. If they 
fhould fail, recourfe mull be had to Embryulcia, 

Vide Vol. I. Book HI. Chap. 2. Sed. 3. Chap. 
3. Sea.4. No. 3. VoL II. Coll. 16. No. 4. Coll. 28. 


Shows, in a lateral view, the face of the child 
prefenting, and forced down into the lower 
part of the Pelvis, the chin being below the 
Pubes, and the Vertex in the concavity of the 
Os Sacrum ; the waters likewife being all dif- 
charged, the Uterus appears ciofcly joined to 



the body of the child, round the neck af which 
is one drcumvolution of the Funis. 

A,^B. The Vertebrce of the loins, Os SacryM^ 
and Coccyx. 

C. Th€ Os Pubis of the left fide. 

D. The inferior part of the Redum^ 

E. The Perincewn. 

F. The left Labium Pudendi. 
G.. G;. G. The Uterus, 

When the Pelvis is large, the head, if fmall, 
will come along in this pohtion, and the child be 
faved : For, as the head advances lower, the face 
and forehead will ilretch the parts between the 
Fr^cnum I^abiorum dLXid. Coccyx in form of a large 
tumor. As the Os Externum likewife is dilated, 
the face will be forced through it ; the under 
part of the chin will rife upwards over the an- 
terior part of the Pubes j and the forehead, Ver^ 
tex, and Occiput, turn up from the parts below. 
If the head, however, is large, it will be detained 
either when higher or in this pofition. In this 
cafe, if the pofition cannot be altered to the nat- 
ural, the child ought to be turned, and delivered 

See N. B: at the end of explanation of Table 
XXV. page 51. 

If the Pelvis, however, is narrow, and the wa- 
ters not all gone, the Vertex ihould, if poffible, 
be brought to prefent ; but if the Uterus is fo 




clofely contra6led that this cannot be efFeQed, on 
account of the ftrong prelTure of the fame, and 
llipperinefs of the child's head, in this cafe the 
method dire6led in the follov/ing table is to be 


Reprefents, in the lateral view, the head of the 
Fcstus in the fame pofition as in the former 
Table ; but the delivery is fuppofed to be re- 
tarded from the largenefs of the head, or a 
narrow Pelvis* 

In this cafe, if the head cannot be raifed, and 
pufhed up into the Uterus, it ought to be deliv- 
ered with the forceps, in order to fave the child. 
This pofition of the chin to the Pubes is one of 
the fafefl cafes where the face prefents, and is 
mod ealily delivered with the forceps ; the man- 
ner of introducing of which over the ears is fhown 
in this Table. The patient mufl lie on her back, 
with her breech a little over the bed, her legs and 
thighs being fupported by an affiftant fitting on 
each fide. After the parts have been flowly di- 
lated with the hand of the operator, and the for- 
ceps introduced, and properly fixed along the 
ears of the child, the head is to be brought down 



by degrees, that the parts below the Os Externim 
may be gradually llretched : The chin then is 
to be raifed up over the Piibes, whilfl the fore- 
head, Fontanelle, and Occiput, are brought out 
llowly from the Perinccum and Fundament to pre- 
vent the fame from being hurt or lacerated. 
But if the Fxtus cannot be extra6led with the 
forceps, the delivery mull be left to the labour 
pains, as long as the patient is in no danger ; but 
if the danger is apparent, the head muft be de- 
livered with the curved crotchets. Vide Table 

When the face prefents, and the chin is to the 

lide of the Pelvis, the patient muft lie on her fide ; 

and after the forceps are fixed along the ears, the 

. chin is to be brought down to the lower part of 

the Os IJchiitm, and then turned out below the 

Pubes, and delivered in a flow manner as above. 
Vide Yol, II. Coll. 16. No. 6. As alfo Tables 

XVI, XVII, XVIII, andXIX,forthedefcription 

of the parts. 


Shows, in a lateral view of the right fide, the 
face of the Foetus prefenting, as in Table XXIII, 
but in the contrary pofition ; that is, with the 





chin to the Os Sacrum, and the Bregma to xhz 
Puhes, the waters evacuated, and the Uterus 

A. The Os Externum not yet begun to flretch, 

B, The Anus, Vide Table XX, for the further 
defcription of the parts. 

In fuch cafes, as well as in thofe of the laft 
mentioned Table, if the child is fmall, the head 
will be pufhed lo^\rer with the labour pains, and 
gradually ftretch the lower part of the Vagina 
and the external parts ; by which means the Os 
Externum will be more and more dilated, until 
the Vertex comes out below the Pubes, and rifes 
up on the outfide ; in which cafe the delivery is 
then the fame as in natural labours. But if the 
head is large, it will pafs along with great dif- 
ficulty ; whence the brain, and velTels of the 
neck, will be fo much compreffed and obllruded, 
as to deftroy the child. To prevent which, if 
called in time, before the head is far advanced in 
the Pelvis, the child ought to be turned, and 
brought footling. If the head, however, is low 
down, and cannot be turned, the delivery is then 
to be performed with the forceps, either by bring- 
ing along the head as it prefents, or as in the fol- 
lowing Table. See the references in the pre- 
ceding Table. 

TV. B. Alarming floodings only excepted, it ifi 
bad pradice to turn the child when the head pre- 
Jaiis J a^id in cafes of relative dijproportion be- 


twetn it and the Pelvis, we can never propofe to 
fave the child by turning. 

See note, Table XXI, page 45. 


Reprefents, by outlines, in a lateral view of the 
left fide of the fubje61:, the Fcstus in the fame 
fituation as in the fornier Table. 

The head here is fqueezed* into a very oblong 
form ; and though forced down fo as fully to 
dilate the Os Externum, yet the Vertex and Occiput 
cannot be brought fo far down, as to turn out 
from below the Puhes,2is in the foi'egoing Table, 
without tearing the Perinceiirn and Anus, as well 
as the Vagina and ReBum, 

The beft method in this cafe, after either the 
fhort or long curved forceps have been applied 
along the ears, as reprefented in the Table, is to 
pufli the head as high up in the Pelvis as is pof- 
fible ; after which the chin is to be turned from 
the Gs Sacrum to either Os Ifchium, and after- 
wards brought down to the inferior part of the 
lad mentioned bone. This done, the operator 
mull pull the forceps with one hand, whilll two 
fingers of the other are fixed on the lower part 
of the chin or under jaw, to keep the face in the 




middle, and prevent the chin from being detain* 
ed at the Os Ifchium, as it comes along, and in 
this manner move the chin round with the for- 
ceps, and the above fingers, until brought under 
the Pubes, which done, the head will be eafily 
extrafted, as in Table XXIV. 

If, before afiiftance has htG.n called, the head 
is fo fqueezed down into the Pelvis, that it is im- 
poffible to move the chin from the Sacrum to ei- 
ther Os Ijchium, fo as to deliver with the Forceps 
for the fafety of the child, the operator mull 
wait with patience, as long as the woman is not 
in danger, or there is no certainty of the death 
of the Fxtiis : but if the patient runs the lea ft 
rilk, the head muft be delivered with the crotchet. 

In general, with refpeft to the pofture of the 
woman iri the application of the forceps, when 
the ears are to the lides of the Pelvis, the forceps, 
as was obferved in Table XXIV, are moft ealily 
introduced when the patient lies upon her back, 
with her breech over the fide of the bed ; but 
when the ear is to the Puhes or Groin, they are 
better applied when the patient lies on her fide^ 
as was obferved in the cafes where the Verte:/Q 

Vide Table XXIV, for the defcription of the 
parts, and the references. Alfo Table XXXIX, 
for the manner of ufing the crotchet. See alfo 
general rules for ufing the forceps in Dr. HamiU 
tons Outlines of Midwifery, page 269, and feq. 
and Dr. Denman's Aphorifms on laborious and 
preternatural prefentation. 




Gives a lateral internal view of a diftorted Pelvis^ 
divided longitudinallyj with the head of a Foe- 
tus of the feventh month pafling the fame* 
Vide the explanation of Table IIL 

A. B. C. The Os Sacrum and Coccyx. 

D. The Os Pubis of the left fide. 

E. The Tuberofity of the Os IJchiumi of the fam^ 

The head of the Fcetus here, though fmall, is 
with difficulty fqueezed down into the Pelvis, and 
changed from a round to an oblong form before 
it can pafs, there being only the fpace of two 
inches and one quarter between the proje6lion of 
the fuperior part of the Sacrum and the OJfa Pubis, 
If the head is foon delivered, the child may be 
born alive : But if it continues in this manner 
many hours, it is in danger of being lofl, on ac- 
count of the long preffure on the brain. To pre- 
vent which, if the labour pains are notfufficient- 
ly ftrong, the head may be helped along with the 
forceps, as dire6led in Table XVI. 

Dr. Ofburn has endeavoured to prove, " thafc 
the faetal head, at full maturity, cannot bear com- 
preffion to a volume much fmaller than three 
inches, from one parietal bone to the other, con-, 
fiftently with fafety to the child's life." He 






therefore concludes : " Through a Pelvis which 
has its cavity fo contra 6led, that the bones ap- 
proach nearer to each other than three inches, it 
is utterly impoflible for a living child, at full 
maturity, by any means to pafs/* 

See Dr. Ofburn's EfTay on Laborious Parturi-- 
tion, page 28. et feq. 

This figure may ferve as ah example of the 
extreme degree of diflortion of the Pelvis^ between 
which and the well formed orie are many inter- 
mediate degrees, according to which the difficulty 
of delivery muft increafe bi* dimihifh, as well as 
from the difproportion of the Pelvis and head of 
the Foetus ; all which cafes require the great^Jl 
taution, both as to the manageiiieiit arid fafety 
bf the mother and child. 

Vide Vol. I. BookllL Chap. 2. Sea. 3* No. 5. 
Chap. 3. Se6l. 4, No. 3. Vol. IL Coll. 21. No. i« 
and Coll. 29* 

MS ' 9 jy. 


Gives a fide view of a diftorted Pelvis, as in the 
former Table, with the head of a full grown 
Foetus fqueezed into the brim, the Parietal bones 
decuffating each other, and comprefFed into a. 
conical form. 

D ^ A. B. C, 


A. B. C. The Os Sacrum and Coccyx^ 

D. The Os Pubis of the left fide. 

E. The Tuberofity of the Os Jfchium, 

F. The Procejfus Acutus. 

G. The Foramen Magnum, 

This Table fhows the impoffibility in fuch a 
cafe to fave the child, unlefs by the Ccejarian op- 
eration ; which, however, ought never to be per- 
formed, excepting when it is impra6ti cable to de- 
liver at all by any other method. Even in this 
cafe, after the upper part of the head is dimin- 
ifhed in bulk, and the bones are extra6led, the 
greateft force mufl be applied in order to extra61: 
the bones of the face and bafis of the fkull, as 
well as the body of the Fcetus, 

Vide Vol. I. Book IIL Chap. 3. Se6l. 7. Chap. 
5. SeQ:. 3. and Vol. IIL Coll. 31. 39. 

N. B. In oppofition to the opinion of Dr, 
Smellie, and fentiments of former authors, Dr. 
Oiborn has proved, from the cafe of Elizabeth 
Sherwood, that '•' a child at full maturity may 
be extracted by the crotchet through a Pelvis 
whofe aperture does not exceed one inch and a 
half from Pubes to Sacrum, with tolerable facility 
to the operator, and perfeft fafety to the mother ; 
dimenfions much lefs than what have been fup- 
pofed to require the Cccfarian operation, even in 
the latell and bell books." Elfay on Laborious 
Parturition, page 64, — 251, &:c. 





Reprefents, in a front view of the Pelvis, as in 
' Table XXII, the breech of the Foetus prefent* 
ing, and dilating the Os Internum, the Mem- 
branes being too foon broke. The fore parts 
of the child are to the poflerior part of the 
Uterus ; and the Funis with a knot upon it,, 
furrounds the neck, arm, and body. 

Some time after this and the following Tables 
were engraved, Dr. Kelly fliowed me a fubje6l he 
had opened, where the breech prefented itfelf, 
and lay much in the fame pofition with its body- 
as in the ninth Table, fuppoling the breech in 
that figure turned down to the Pelvis, and the 
head up to the Fundus Uteri, 

I have fometimes felt, in thefe cafes []wheii 
labour was begun, and before the breech was 
advanced into the Pelvis~\ one hip at the Sacrum, 
the other refting above the Os Pubis, and the 
private parts to one fide : But before they could ad- 
vance lower, the Nates were turned to the fides. 
and wide part of the brim, of the Pelvis, with the 
private parts to the Sacrum, as in this Table ;. 
though fometimes to the Piibes, as in the follow- 
ing Table. As foon as the breech advances to the 
lower part of the bafm, the hips again return to 
their former pofition, viz, one hip turned out 
D 3 below 


below the Os Pubis, and the other at the back 
parts of the Os Externum, 

N. B. In this cafe the child, if not very large, 
or the Pelms narrow, may be often delivered alive 
hy the labour pains ; but if long detained at the 
inferior part of the Pelvis, the long prefTure of the 
Funis may obftru61: the circulation. In mofl 
cafes where the breech prefents, the efFeffc of the 
labour pains ought tp be waited for, until at leafl 
they have fully dilated the Os Internum and Vag- 
ina,, if the fame have not been flretched before 
with the waters and Membranes, In the mean 
time, whilfl the breech advances, the Os Externum 
jpay be dilated gently during every pain, to al- 
low room for introducing a finger or (wo of each 
hand to the outfide of each groin of the Foetus, 
in order to alii ft the delivery when the Nates 
are advanced to the lower part of the Vagina. 
But if the Foetus is larger than ufual, or the Pelvis 
narrow, an4 after a long time and many repeated 
pains the breech is not forced down into the Pel- 
vis, the patient's ftrength at the fame time failing, 
the operator muft in a gradual manner open the 
part?, and, having introduced a hand into the Vag- 
ina, raife or pulh up the breech of the Foetus, and 
bring down the legs and thighs. If the Uterus is 
fo ftrongly coritrafted that the legs cannot begot 
down, the largeft end of the blunt hook is to be 
introduced, as direfted in Table XXXVII. As 
foon as the breech or legs are brought down, the 
body and head are to be delivered as defcribed ii^ 



the next Table, only there is notifecei here to 
alter the pofition of the child's body. 

Vide Vol. I. BooklH. Chap. 4. Se6l 1,2. Vol. 

HI. CoiL 32. 

The defcription of the parts in this, and the 
following Table, is the fame as in Table XXII,. 
only the dotted lines in this defcribe the place of 
the OJfa Pubis, and anterior parts of the OJfa If- 
chium which are removed, and may ferve in this 
refpe6l as an example for all the other front views, 
where, without disfiguring the Table, they could 
not be fo well put in. 

N, B, The ufe of the blunt hook, in breech 
cafes, is a hazardous expedient ; and manual af- 
liftance of every kind fhouldbe avoided, the mod 
urgent cafes only excepted. 

See Dr. Hamilton s Outlines of Midwifery, page 
37Q, et; feq. 


Shows, in the fame view, and with the fame 
references as the former, the breech of the Fatus 
prefenting ; with this difference, however, that 
the fore parts of the child are to the fore part of 
the Uterus. In this cafe, when the breech com- 
ing double, as it prefents, is brought down to the 
hams, the legs muft be extra61ed, a cloth wrap^. 

D 4 pcd 


ped round them, and the fore parts of the child 
turned to the back parts of the woman. If a 
pain fhould iri the mean time force down the 
body of the child, it ought to be pufhed up again 
in turning, as. it turns eafier when the beliy is in 
the Pelvis, than when the breaft and ftioulders 
gre engaged ; and as fometimes the face and fore- 
head are rather towards one of the groins, a quar- 
ter turn more brings thefe parts to the fide of the 
Pelvis^ and a little backwards, after which the 
body is to be brought down. If the child is not 
large, the arms need not be brought down, and 
the head may be delivered by preffing back the 
fhoulders and body of the child to the Perinxum, 
and whilft the chin and face are within the Vag^ 
ina, to bring the Occiput out from below the Pubes, 
according to D^venters method. Or the opera- 
tor may introduce a finger or two into the mouth, 
or on each fide of the nofe, and, fupporting the 
body on the fame arm, fix two fingers of the 
other hand over the fhoulders, on each fide 
of the child's neck, and in this manner raife 
the body oyer the Pubes, and bring the face and( 
forehead out with a femicircular turn upwards, 
from the under part of the Os Externum;. All 
this may be eafily done when the woman lies on, 
her fide ; but if the child is large, and the Pelvis 
narrow, it is better to turn the patient on her 
back, as defcribed in Table XXIV; and after the 
legs and body are extra6led as far as the fhoul- 
ders, the arms are to be cautioufly brought down, 
and the head delivered. If the woman has flrong 



pains, and when by the felt pulfation of the vef- 
fels of the Funis Umbilicalis, or the flruggling mo- 
tions of the Fxtus, it is certain that the child is 
ftill alive, wait with patience for the alliftance of 
the labour : But if that and the hand are infuf- 
ficient, and the pulfation of the Funis turns weak-, 
er, and if the child cannot be brought double, 
the breech muft be pufhed up ; and if the re- 
liftance of the Uterus is fo great as to prevent the 
extraction of the legs, the patient ought to be 
turned on her knees and elbows. When the legs 
are thus brought down, the woman, if needful, 
is to be again turned to her back, to allow more 
freedom to deliver the body and head, as before 
defcribed. If the head, after feveral trials, can- 
not be delivered, without endangering the child, 
f/om overftraining the neck, the long curved for- 
ceps ought to be applied, as in Table XXXV, 
If thefe fail, and the patient is not in danger, 
fome time may be allowed for the effed: of the 
labour pains ; which likewife proving infufHcient, 
the crotchet muft be ufed as in Table XXXIX, 
and when it is certain that the child is dead, cr 
|:hat there is no poffibility of faving it. 

N. B. Under proper management, if there is 
no confiderable relative difproportion between 
the head and the Pelvis, the hand of the operator 
will be fufficient to relieve the head, when re- 
tained after the delivery of the body, in breech, 
and other preternatural prefentations. See Dr. 
Hamilton s Outlines of Midwifery, p. 366 to 368. 




Reprefents, in a front view of the Pelvis, the Fce^ 
tus comprell'ed hy the eontraftion of the UUriis. 
into a round form, the fore parts of the former 
being towards the inferior part of the latter, 
and one foot and hand fallen down into the 
Vagina. In this figure the anterior part of the 
Pelvis is removed by a longitudinal fe6lioa 
through the niiddle of the Foramen Magnum* 

A. A, The fuperior parts of the QJfa Ilium*. 

B. B. The UUrus. 

C. The mouth of the Womb ft retched, and ap* 
pearing in 

O. O. O. O. The Vagina, 

D. The inferior and poflerior part of the Os^ 

E. E. E. E. The remaining part of the OJfa Pih 
his and Jfchimn. 

F. F. F. F. The Memhrana Adipofa. 

This and the three following Tables, repre- 
fenting four diflperent preternatural pofitions of 
the Foetus in utero, may ferve as examples for the 
manner of delivery in thefe as well as in all oth^ 
cr preternatural cafes. 

In all preternatural cafes, the Foetus may be 
eafily turned and delivered by the feet, if known 





before the Membranes are broke, and the waters 
difcharged ; or if the Pelvis is narrow, and the 
patient is flrong, the head, if large, may be 
brought down fo as to prefent in the natural way : 
But if all the waters are difcharged, and the Ute- 
rus is flrongly contra 6led to the body of the Fcs' 
tus, this lafl method can feldom take place, on 
account of the ftrong preifure of the Uterus^ and 
flipperinefs of the child's head. 

In the prefent cafe, the woman may either be 
laid on her back or fide, as defcribed in Tables 
XVI, and XXIV ; and the operator, having flow^ 
ly dilated the Os Externum with his fingers, muft 
introduce the fame into the Vagina, and pufh up 
into the Uterus the parts of the Fcetus that pre* 
fent ; or if there is fpace for it, his hand may 
pafs in order to dilate the Os Internum if not fuf- 
ficiently ftretched previoufly by the Membranes 
and waters. This done, he muft advance his 
hand into the Uterus^ to know the pofition of the 
Foetus ; and, as the breech is rather lower than 
the head, fearch for the other leg, and bring down 
both feet without the Os Externum, A cloth muft 
Ithen be wrapped round them ; and, having grafp- 
jed them with one hand, he is to introduce the 
Other into the Ute7-us, in order to raife the head 
of the Fxtus, whilft the legs and thighs are pulled 
down by the hand that holds the feet. When 
the head is raifed, and does not fall down again, 
the hand of the operator may be withdrawn from 
the Ute7'us, and the delivery completed as dire6l- 
ed in the two former Tables, By the artlefs 



method of taking hold and pulling one or both 
feet, the breech may come down and the head 
rife to the Fundus ; but if this fhould not hap- 
pen, there will be great danger of overllraining 
the Foetus, which is prevented by the former 
inethod. If the Membranes are broken before the 
Os Uteri is largely opened, and the hand of th^ 
operator cannot be introduced, which fometimes 
happens in a firft pregnancy, the parts of the Foe^ 
tics ihould be allowed to protrude ftill further, 
by which means the rigidity of the Os Internum. 
will in time be leffened. 

Viie Vol. I. and III. on preternatural labours. 

See alfo directions for the management of pre- 
ternatural labours in Dr. Hamilton s Outlines of 
Midwifery, page 357, et feq. and Dr. Denman\ 
Aphorifms refpeding the Diftindion and Man- 
agement of preternatural prefentation, 


Reprefents, in the fame view with the former, the- 

Fixtus in the contrary pofition ; the breech and' 

fore parts being towards the Fundus Uteri, the 

left arm in the Vagina, and fore arm withaub 

the Os Externum, the ftioulder being likewife 

forced into the Os Uteri. 





The operator in this cafe muft introduce his 
fingers between the back part of the Vagina and 
the arm of the Forties, in order to raife the fboul- 
der and make room for paffing his hand into the 
Uterus to diftinguilh the pofition. This being 
known, he ought to pufti up the Ihoulder to that 
part of the Uterus, where the head is lodged, in 
order to raife the fame to the Fundus. If the 
body of the Fxtus does not move round, and 
thereby lie in a more convenient pofition for 
bringing down the legs, the hand of the operator 
ought to be puftied up Hill higher to fearch for, 
and take hold of the feet, which are to be brought 
down as far as is poflible. If this fiiould not 
change the pofition, the fhoulder is to be pufhed 
up, and the legs pulled down alternately, until 
they are brought down into the Vagina, or with- 
out the Os Externum, after which the delivery 
may be completed as in the former cafe. 

If the feet cannot be brought down lower than 
into the Vagina, a noofe may be introduced over 
both ankles, by which the legs are brought lower 
by pulling the noofe with one hand, whilll: the 
other, previoufly introduced into the Uterus^ 
pulhes up the fhoulders and head, l^y this dou- 
ble force the pofition of the Fcetus is to be altered, 
and the delivery efFe6led. In thefe cafes, as the 
fhoulder is raifed to the Fundus, the arm com- 
monly returns into the Uterus ; but if the arm is 
fo fwelled as to prevent the introdudion of the 
operator's hand, and cannot be folded up or re- 
turned into the Uterus, it muft be taken off at the 



fhoulder, or elbow, in order to deliver and favd 
the woman*. If both arms come down, when 
the breaft prefents, the methods above defcribed 
are to be ufed. 

Vide the explanations and references of ih6 
foregoing Table to illuftrate this and the follow-* 

Thirty third table 

Exhibits , in the fame view like wife of the Pelvis 
with the former, a third polition of the Foetus 
when comprejQTed into the round form, the 
belly, viz. or Umbilical region, prefenting at 
the Os Intermm, and the Funis fallen dowil 
into the Vagina^ and appearing at the Os Ex* 

The delivery in this cafe is> to be efFe6led as ill 
the former Table, by pulhing up the breaft, and 
bringing down the legs. When the belly pre- 
fents, it is eafier coming at the legs, than when 
the breaft prefents, becaufe in the former cafe the 
head is nearer to the Fundus Uteri, and the legs and 


♦ The protruding arm of the child does not impede the Introduftion o£ 
the operator's hand in turning ; and the horrid expedient of amputation 
recommended here^ andby former praftitioners, is feldom neceffary, cvea 
in cafes of confiderable narrownefs of the Pelvis from diftortion. 

See Df, Hamilton's Outlines of Midwifery, page 59?, ctftq. 




thighs lower. If the belly or breaft is forced 
down into the lower part of the Pelvis, the child 
will be in danger from the bending of the Ver-* 
iehrce, and the preffure of the fpinal marrow, fo 
great force is alfo required to raife thefe parts up 
into the Uterus, in order to come at the feet, that 
it will fometimes be neceifary to turn the wom- 
an to her knees and elbows, to diminifh the re- 
fillance of the Abdominal mufcles. V/hen the 
Funis comes down without the Os Externum, if 
there is a pulfation felt, it muft immediately be 
replaced, and kept warm in the Vagina, to pre- 
ferve the circulation, and prevent a ftagnation, 
from its being expofed to cold air. If the Funis 
comes down when the head prefents, the child is 
in danger, if not fpeedily delivered with the pains, 
or brought footling. 

N, £, For an ingenious method of reducing 
the prolapfed cord, See London Medical Journal^ 
Vol. VII. 1786, page 38. 

See the two former Tables for the explanations 
and references. 


Shows, in a lateral view of the Pelvis, one of the 
moft difficult preternatural cafes. The left 
Ihoulder, breaft, and neck of the Fcetus pra- 

fen ting, 


fenting, the head reflefted over the Pubes to 
the right ftloulder and back, and the feet and 
breech ftretched up to the Fundus, the Uterus 
contra6led at the fame time, in form of a lonsr 
flieath round the body of the Fxtus^ 

A. B. C. The Os Sacrum and Coccyx^ 

D. The Os Pubis of the left fide. 

E. Part of the Urinary bladder. 

F. The ReBum* 

H. L K. The private parts, 

M. ThtAnus'. 

M. N. The Perinceim. 

V. The Meatus Urinarius, 

O. The Os Uteri not yet opened, and fituated 
backwards towards the ReBum and Coccyx. 

R. S. The fame reprefented in dotted lines, as 
Opened when the labour is begun. 

T. U. The fame more fully dilated, but nearer 
to the pollerior than anterior part of the Pelvis, 

W. P. The fame not fully ftretched at the fore 
part, though intirely obliterated at the back part^ 
the Uterus and Vagina being there only fometimes 
one continued furface* 

Henge it appears why the anterior part of the 
05 Uteri is frequently protruded before the head 
of the Fcetus at the Pubes, which, if it retards de- 
livery, is removed by Hiding it up with a finger 
or two between the head andlaft mentioned part. 
The pra6lice recommended here is attended with 
confiderabie hazard ; and in a favourable pre^ 




fentatf on of the Fxtus the dilatation may be fafely 
ti-ufled to nature. Vide Tables IX, X, XI,XII,XIII. 

The manner of delivery, in the pofition of the 
Foetus, as reprefented in this Table, is to endeav- 
our with the hand to force up the part prefent- 
ing, in order to raife the head to the Fundus » If 
this is impoffible from the flrong contra6tion of 
the Uterus, the operator muft pufh up his hand 
in a flow and cautious manner along the bread 
and belly of the child, in order to come at the 
legs and feet, which are to be taken hold of, and 
brought down as far as the polition of the Fxtus 
will admit of. The body is then to be moved 
round by pufhing up the lower parts, and pull- 
ing down the upper, until the feet are brought 
without the Os Externum, and the delivery com- 
pleted, as in Table XXXI. But if the feet cannot 
be got down, fo as to be taken hold of without 
the Os Externum, a noofe muft be fixed over the. 
ankles, as in Table XXXII. 

Vide Vol. I, and III, as dire6led in Table XXXL 


Shows, in a lateral view of the Pelvis, the method 
of afTifting the delivery of the head of the Foetus 
with the long curved forceps, in praeternatural 
cafes, when it cannot be done with the hands, 
asdcfcribed in Tables XXIX, and XXX. 

A. The three lowefl Vcrtcbrce oi tlit loins, with 
the Os Sacrum and Coccyx^ 

E JB The 


B. The Os Pubis of the left fide. 

C. C. The Perincemn and Anus prelTed back- 
wards with the forceps. 

D. The Intejlines, 

E. E. The Parietes of the Abdomen* 

F. F. F. The Uterus, 

G. The pofterior part of the Os Uteri, 
H. The Retlum, 

L The Vagina, 

After the body and arms of the child are de- 
livered, and the different methods ufed to bring 
down the head with the hands, as direfled in the 
above Table, and more fully defcribed in Vol. I, 
and III, the following method is to be tried in 
order to fave the child, which mull otherwife be 
loft by overftraining the neck andfpinal marrow. 
The woman being in the fupine polition, as in 
Tc^le XXIV, one of the afliftants ought to hold 
the body and arms of the child up towards the 
Abdomen of the woman, to give more room to the 
operator, who having introduced one hand up to 
the child's face, and moved it from the fide a 
little backvvrards, for the eafier application of the 
forceps along the fides of the head, muft then 
turn his hand to one of the ears, and introduce 
one of the blades with the other hand between 
the fame and the head, with the cured fide to- 
wards the Pubes, as in this Table. This done, 
the hand is to be brought down to hold the han- 
dle of the blade of the forceps, until the other 
hand is introduced to the other fide of the head, 
t)y which naeans the fame is preffed againft the 

WITH explanations; &c. 71 

blade that is up, and which is thus prevented 
from (lipping, whilft the other hand introduces 
the fecond blade on the .oppofite fide. The 
blades being thus introduced, care muft be taken, 
that in joining them no part of the Vagina is 
locked in. After the forceps are firmly fixed along 
the fides of the head, the face and forehead mufl 
be turned again to the fide of the brim of the 
Pelvis, by which means the wide part of the 
head is to the wide part of the brim. This done, 
the head is to be brought lower, and the force grad- 
ually increafed, according to therefiftance from the 
largenefs of the head, or narrownefs of the Pelvis. 
The forehead, when brought low enough down, is 
then to be turned into the concavity of the Os Sa- 
crum and Coccyx, the handles of the forceps raifed 
upwards, and the fame caution ufed in bringing the 
head through the Os Externum, as defcribed in Ta* 
ble XIX, and XXX. By this method the head will 
be delivered, the child frequently faved, and theufe 
of the crotchet prevented, except in thofe bafons 
that are fo narrow, that it is impoffible to deliver 
without diminifhing the bulk of the head. 

Vide Table XXXIX. Alfo, Vol. I. Book III. 
Chap. 4. Se6l. 5. Vol. III. Coll. 34, 35. 

N. jB. In preternatural labours, if the head can* 
not be relieved by the hands of the operator, the 
childcanfeldombefaved by mechanical expedients. 
In difficult cafes the long citrved forceps may, how- 
ever, be attempted to be applied. Thofe of Dr. 
Leak, in thofe circumflances, are preferable to any 
Others. See note after explanation of Table XXX, 



Reprefents, in a lateral view of the Pelvis^ tfee 
method of extrading, with the affiftance of a 
curved crotchet, the head of the Fcetus, when 
left in the Uterus, after the body is delivered 
and feparated from it, either by its being too 
large, or the Pelvis too narrow. 

A. B. C. The Os Sacrum and Coccyx, 

D. The Os Pubis of the left fide. 

E. E. The Uterus, 

F. The locking part of the crotchet. 

g, h. i. The point of the crotchet on the infide 
of the Cranium, 

If this cafe happens from the forehead's being 
towards the Pubes, or the child long dead, and fo 
mortified that both the body and under jaw are 
feparated unexpeftedly, the long forceps that are 
curved upwards will be fufficient to extra8: the 
head ; but if the fame is large, and the Pelvis 
narrow, and the delivery cannot be effedled by 
the above method, then the head niuft be open- 
ed, that its bulk may diminifh, as it is extrafted. 
The patient being placed either on her back, or 
lide, as in the explanation of Table XVI, and 
XXIV, the left hand of the operator is to be in- 
troduced into the Uterus, and the forehead of the 
Foetus turned to the right fide of the brim of the 
i^clviSf and a little backwards, the chin being 

downwards ^ 



downwards ; after which the palm of the hand 
and fingers are to be advanced as high as the 
Fontanelle, and the head grafped with the thumb 
and little finger on each fide, as firm as is poffi- 
ble, whilft an affiftant preffes on each fide of the 
Abdomen with both hands, to keep the Uterus firm 
in the middle and lower part of the fame. This 
done, the operator having with his right hand in- 
troduced and applied the crotchet to the head 
(the point being turned towards the forehead, and 
the convex part towards the Sacrum) he muft go 
up along the infide of the left hand as high as 
the Fontanelle, and there, or near it, fix the point 
of the crotchet, keeping flill the left hand in the 
former pofition, until with the other he pierces' 
the Cranium with the point of the inftrument, and 
tears a large opening in it from K to I ; after 
this, keeping the crotchet Heady, he may Aide 
down his left hand in a cautious manner, left 
the former pofition Ihould be altered, and the 
head will fink lower down by the affiftant's preiT^ 
ing on the Abdomen. The two fore fingers of 
the left hand are then to be introduced into the 
mouth, and the thumb below the under jaw, the 
hand being above the blade of the crotchet. 
When this firm hold is taken, the operator may 
begin and pull flowly with both hands, and as 
the brain difcharges through the perforation, the 
head will diminifh, and come along. If this 
method fhould fail from the flipperinefs of the 
head, or its being fo much offified that a fuffi- 
cient opening cannot be made, the Vcrlex raufl 

F. 3 be 


be turned down to the brim of the Pelvis, the 
Fontanelle backwards, and each blade of the long 
forceps introduced along the fides of the head^ 
with the curved fide towards the Puhes. After 
they are joined and locked, the handles are to 
be tied together with a fillet, to keep them firm 
on the head, an affiftant is to keep the handles 
backwards until the Cranium is largely opened 
with the long fcilTars ihown in Table XXXIX. 
This done, the head is to be extra6led in a flow 
manner, firil turning the forehead to the fide of 
the brim, and as the brain evacuates, and the 
head comes lower down, again turning the fore- 
head into the concavity of the Sacrum^ and com- 
pleting the delivery, as in Table XVI. 

This Table may alfo ferve for an example, to 
fhow the method of fixing the crotchet on the 
head, when although the body is not feparated 
from it, yet it cannot be delivered with the ope- 
rator's hands, or the long forceps, as iij Table 
XXIX, and XXXV. 

Vide Vol. I. Book III. Chap. 3. Sed. 7. Chap. 
4. Sea. 5. Alfo, Vol. III. Coll. 31, 36. 

N. B. It is the fafeft praftice, where the re fi fi- 
ance is confiderable from relative difproportion, 
to diminifh the volume of the child's head pre- 
vious to the extra6tion with the hook. 





And the two following, reprefent feveral kinds of 
inflrumentsufeful in laborious and difficult cafes. 

A. The ftraightfliort forceps, in the exad pro« 
portion as to the width between the blades, and 
length from the points to the locking part : The 
lirll being two and the fecond fix inches, which 
with five inches and a half (the length of the 
handles) makes in all eleven inches and a half. 
The length of the handles may be altered at 
pleafure. I find, however, in praftice, that this 
ftandard is the moil convenient, and with lefs 
difficulty introduced, than when longer, having 
alfo fufficient force to deliver in moll cafes, 
where their affiftance is necefTary. The handles 
and lowell part of the blades may as here be 
covered with any durable leather, but the blades 
ought to be wrapped round with fomething of a 
thinner kind, w^hich may be eafily renewed when 
there is the lead fufpicion of veneral infe6lion in 
a former cafe ; by being thus covered, the for- 
ceps have a better hold, and mark lefs the head 
of the child. For their eafier introdu6lion, the 
blades ought likewife to begreafed with hog's lard. 

B. Reprefents the poflerior part of a fingle 
blade, in order to fhow the width and length of 
the open part of the fame, and the form and pro- 
portions of the whole. The handles, however, as 
here reprefented; are rather too large. , 

E 4 Vide 


Vid(i Table XXI, for the figure and proportions 
of the long forceps, that are curved upwards, 
and covered in the fame manner as the former. 

The forceps were at fiiH contrived to fave the 
Foetus, and prevent, as much as pofFible, the ufe 
of Iharp inftruments ; but even to this falutary 
jnethod recouirfe ought not to be had but in cafes 
where the degree of force requilite to extra^ will 
not endanger, by its confequences, the life of the 
mother. For, by the imprudent ufe of the for- 
ceps, much more harm may be done than good. 

See the explanation of Table XVI, alfo the 
Preface to Vol. II, with the cafes in the collecr- 
tion on that fubje6l. 

C. The blunt hook, which is ufed for thi-ee 

Firfij To affift the estraftion of the head after 
the Cranium is opened with the fciifars, by in- 
troducing the fmall end along the ear on the out- 
fide of the head to above the under jaw, where 
the point is to be fixed ; the other extremity of the 
hook being held with one hand, w^hilfl two fin- 
gers of the other are to be introduced into the 
forefaid opening, by which holds the head is to 
be gradually ex traced. 

Secondly, The fmall end is ufeful in abortions 
in any of the firft four or five months, to hook 
down the Secundines, when lying loofe in the 
Uterus, v/hen the patient is much weakened by 
floodings from the too long retention of the fame, 
the pains alfo being unable to expel them, and 
when they cannot be extra6i:ed with the fingers. 




jBut if the Placenta ftill adheres, it is dangerous 
to ufe this or any other inllrument to extra6l the 
fame, as it ought to be left until it feparates nat- 
urally. If a fmall part of the Secundines is pro* 
truded through the Os Uteri, and pulled away 
from what ftill adheres in the Uterus, the mouth 
of the Womb contrafts, and that irritation is there- 
by removed which would have continued the pains, 
4nd have feparated and difeharged the whole. 
Thirdly, The large hook at the other end is ufe- 
ful to ailift the extraction of the body, when the 
breech prefents, but fhould be ufed with great 
caution, to avoid the diflocation or fra6lur€ of 
the thigh. 

N, B, The fmall extremity of the hook can nev- 
er be employed without danger to the mother in 
the former cafe ; nor the large hook without haz- 
aid of deftroying the child, or occalioning violent 
jnjury to the mother in the latter. 

ra^ Table XXIX. Alfo, Vol. I. Book 11. Chap. 
3. Book. III. Chap. 3. Se6l. 7. and Chap. 4. 
Sea. 2. Vol. II. Coll. 12. Vol. III. Coll. 31, 32. 


A, Reprefents the whalebone fillet, which may 
fometimes be ufeful in laborious cafes, when the 
operator is not provided with the forceps in fud- 
den and unexpected exigencies. 



When the Vertex of the J^toprefents, andthe 
head is forced down into the lower part of the 
Fefvis, the woman weak, and the pains not fuf- 
ficient to deliver it, the double of the fillet is to . 
be introduced along the fore part of the Parietal 
bones to the face, and if poflible above the under 
jaw ; which done, the whale bone may be either 
left in or pulled down out of the fheath, and ev- 
ery weak pain aflifted by pulling gently at the 
fillet. ; If the head can be raifed to the upper part 
of the Pelvis, the fillet will be more eafily got 
over the chin, which is a fafer and better holU 
than on the face. If the face or forehead pre- 
fents, the fillet is to be introduced over the Occiput. 
Vide YohLBook in. Chap. 3, Sed. 2. VoL 
II. ColL 24. 

In fueh cafes, likewife, the whale bone may be fup- 
pliedby a twigof any tough wood, mounted with a 
limber garter or filletfowedin form of a long fheath^ 
. N. jB. Fillets, of whatever conftru61;ion, being 
difficult of application, trifling in their powers, 
liable to cut or gall the child's head, though a 
fecure hold Ihould be obtained, and in other 
refpeds inferior to the forceps, are now with juf- 
tice reje6led from pra6lice. 

B. B. Gives two views of a new kind of pefTary 
for the Prolapfus Uteri, being taken from the 
French and Dutch kind. After the Uterus is re- 
duced, the large end of the pcffary is to be in- 
troduced into the Vagina, and the Os Uteri retain- 
ed in the concave part, where there are three holes 
to prevent the fl agnation of any moifture. The 



fmall end without the Os Externum has two tapes 
drawn through the two holes, which are tied to 
font other tapes, that hang down from a belt that 
furrounds the woman's body, and by this means 
keep up the pefTary. This fort may be taken out 
hy the patient when fhe goes to bed, and intro- 
duced again in the morning ; but as this fome- 
times rubs the Os Ext&rnum, fo as to make its ufe 
uneafy, the round kind marked C are of more 
general ufe. They are made of wood, ivory, or 
cork (the laft covered with cloth and dipt in wax :) 
the peifary is to be lubricated with pomatum, the 
edge forced through the palJage into the Vagina, 
and a finger introduced into the hole in the mid- 
dle lays it acrofs within the Os Externum, They 
ought to be larger or fmailer, according to the 
widenefs or narrownefs of the, palfage, to prevent 
their being forced out by any extraordinary 
flraining. Vide Vol. I. Book IV. Chap. 1. Se6l. 
7. Vol, III. Coll. 24. 

See a defcription of a globe pelTary, recom- 
mended by Dr. Denman, London Medical Jour- 
nal, Vol. VII, for 1786, page 56. 

D. D. Gives two views of a female catheter, to 
fliow its degree of curvature and different parts. 
Thofe for common ufe may be made much fhort- 
er for conveniency of carrying in the pocket ; 
but fometimes when the head or body of the child 
prelfes on the bladder above the Pubes, it requires 
one of this length ; and in fome extraordinary 
cafes I have been obliged to ufe a male catheter. 

Vide Vol. L Book 11. Chap. 1. Seft. 1, 2. Vol. 
II, Coll. 10. No. 2. THIRTY 



a Reprefents a pair of curved crotchets locked 
together in the fame manner as the forceps. . It 
is very rare that the ufe of both is neceffary, ex- 
cepting when the face prefents with the chin 
turned to the Sacrum, and when it is impofTible 
to move the head to bring the child footling, or 
deliver with the forceps. In that cafe, if one 
crotchet is not fufficient, the other is to be intro- 
duced, and when joined together will a6l both as 
crotchets, in opening the Cranium, and as the head 
advances, will likewife a6l as forceps in moving 
and turning the head more conveniently for the 
delivery of the fame. They may alfo be ufeful 
to affift when the head is left in the Uterus, and 
one blade is not fufficient. There is feldom oc- 
cafion, however, for the fharp crotchet, when the 
head prefents, the blunt hook in Table XXVII, 
being commonly fufficient, or even the forceps to 
extract the fame, after it is opened with the fcif- 
fars. Great care ought to be taken when the 
fharp crotchet is introduced, to keep the point 
towards the Foetus, efpecially in cafes where the 
fingers cannot be got up to guide the fame. The 
dotted lines along the infide of one of the blades, 
reprefent a ffieath that is contrived to guard the 
point until it is introduced high enough ; the 
ligature at the hafidles marked with the two dot- 
ted lines is then to be untied, the fheath with- 




drawn, and tlue point, being uncovered, is fixed 
as dn-eded in Table XXXVL 

The point guarded, with this fheath, may alfo 
be ufed inftead of the blunt hook. 

h Gives a view of the back part of one of the 
crotchets, which is twelve inches long. 

c Gives a front view of the point, to fhow its 
length and breadth, which ought to be rather 
longer and narrower than here reprefented. 

N, B, In the lefs improved (late of the 'art, 
when mechanical exertions were chiefly trulled 
to accomplifh delivery, in cafes of narrownefs 
from diltortion of the bones, two blades of the 
crotchet were recommended by Dr. Smellie* 
That pra6lice is now rejedled ; for both blades 
can never be employed at once with advantage, 
and feldom with fafety. 

See Dr. Hamilton's Outlines of Midwifery, 
page 285 to 302 ; alfo Appendix, 420 ; and Dr. 
Olburne's Effay on Laborious Parturition. 

d Reprefents the fcilfars proper for perforating 
the Cranium in very narrow and diilorted Pelvifes, 
They ought to be made very ftrong, and nine 
inches at leail in length, with ftops or refts in 
the middle of the blades, by which a large dila- 
tation is more eafily made. 

The above inftruments ought only to be ufed 
in the moil extraordinary cafes, where it is not 
pofTible to fave the woman without their affiilance. 

Vide Vol. I. Book IIL Chap. 3. Sed. 5. Chap. 
5. No. 1. Vol. IIL Coll. 31, 35. 




Number XL. 

By the late t)r. Thomas Young, with improvements by Dr. 
Hamilton, both Profeflbrs of Midwifery at Edinburgh, 

Among the few improvements which have been 
made in the obftetrical apparatus fmce the days 
of Qr. Smellie, the mod important are the alter- 
ations in the fo7'cepSf by which the inconveniences 
formerly attending the ufe of that inftrument are 
obviated, and the operation is rendered more fafe 
and eafy. 

In contriving thefe alterations, the intentions 
were, i . That the large curves fhould correfpond 
as nearly as poflible with that of the Pelvis, 2. That 
their points Ihould be thrown forwards and made 
round, to prevent their hitching, or even prefTing 
uneafily againfl any part of the Pelvis ; and 
likewife to maintain their hold of the head, 
whilfl it is to be brought forwards in that curv- 
ed line of diredion which nature obferves. 
3. That an inverted curve fhould be made towards 
the joints, whereby the Perinceum may be faved 
from injury, the extrafting force rightly conduc- 
ed, and the handles at the fame time kept from 
prefhng uneafily on the inferior and anterior parts 
of the Puhes. 4. That their fub fiance ftiould be 
reduced as much as poffible, fo that they are not 
made flexible, or fo thin at the edges as to hurt 
the part. 5. That their clams be made to prefs 






'.'B f 


equally on the child's head, and fpread gradually 
from the joint, fo as not to dilate the Os Vagina: 
too fuddenly. 6. That the clams be of a due 
breadth, with the outer furface a little convex, 
and extremely fmooth, that they may not prefs 
uneafily or hurt the woman. 7 . That their length 
be fuch as can be applied fafely and commo- 
dioufly within the Pelvis, and at the fame time fuit 
the different fizes of the head as much as pollible. 

The inftrument, executed according to thefe 
intentions, is called the Short Curved Forceps, It 
confifls of two blades, or parts ; each of which 
is diftinguiftied into the handle A, the joint B O^ 
and the clams D E. See fig. 1 . which reprefents 
one of the blades before it is bent into its perfect 
ftate : a a a are three holes for admitting fcrews 
to fix the wooden handle. — Fig. 2. fliows the in- 
ftrument finifhed and locked, in which ftate it 
meafures about 11 inches ; and, when properly 
made, weighs about 11 ounces troy. The clams 
muft be covered with the beft Morocco leather, 
ftiaved thin, moiftened with water, and fewed on 
with waxed filk. 

N, B, Several inconveniences, both in the intro- 
dudion and confequences, having been found to 
attend the ufe of the forceps with the clams cov- 
ered, praftitioners at prefent very generally pre- 
fer thofe of poliftied fteel. 

Fig. 3. A catheter, with a fmall curve towards 

the point, which is better adapted to the female 

Urethra than the ftraight. It may be perforated 

with 8, 12; or 16 holes in rows, as here reprefent- 

» ed, 


cd, and terminated by a flight, very fmooth, 
rounded, or oblong knob. The length fliould be 
nearly fix inches, and the diameter not trifling. 

Fig. 4. The perforators of Dr. Denman, now- 
employed by many praditioners, in preference 
to thofe of Dr. Sraellie, with the angular rejli ren^ 
dered fmoothcr and more rounded. If the long fcif- 
fars of Dr. Smellie fliould be ftill retained in 
pratlice, the fliarp edges orfght to be removed ; 
they Ihould have, like thofe of Dr. Denman, a 
degree of curve towards the points, and be pro- 
vided with blunt knobs, inftead of the angular 
refl:s, which expofe the patient to the hazard of 
having the parts wounded or lacerated. 

See Dr. Hamilton's Outlines of Midwifery, 
page 290. 

N. B, With a view to fave the child when the 
mother is in danger, but the head too high for 
the common Jhort forceps, and alfo to obviate an 
inconvenience complained of by many pra6li- 
tioners, of their locking within the Vagina, the 
long forceps of Mr. Leveret of Paris, Do6iors 
Smellie and Leak of London, and of Mr. Pugh 
of Chelmsford in EiTex, have been invented. 
The lig-htnefs and neatnefs of confl:ru6i:ion of Dr. 
Leak's, with juftice, entitle them to the preference. 

Fig. 5. The blunt hook, as prefently ufed, with 
a fwell in the middle, by which a more fecure 
hold: can be taken, and the extra6lion accom- 
pliflied with more fafety and fuccefs, than with 
the ftraight hook.